By rule of thumb, you can assume that fats that come from plant sources, like nuts, seeds, olives and avocados, are typically more beneficial to your health (58). Plant based fats are high in unsaturated oils thought to promote heart health. In addition, plants naturally contain phytochemicals, compounds that work to protect the plants from harm and have similar protective benefits for humans when they consume them. Depending on how plant based oils are produced, different processing techniques can help retain more of these phytochemicals.  However, you can also get heart healthy fats from animal sources if you look for quality meat, dairy and seafood options.

As we approach Valentine’s Day, we are reminded of all the reasons we love LOVE. Companionship, trust, affection and emotional support are just some of the things we’ve come to expect from a happy couple. Not to burst your dreamy romantic bubble, but there is one very real downside to expect in a relationship, and that would be “relationship weight gain.”
1) Out of curiosity, do you aim to keep your athletes just out of ketosis range, or is temporary ketosis a state you shoot for in order to expedite weight loss in that five-day period prior to weigh-in? (or do you consider it too lengthy/finicky a transition to even bother?) What are your thoughts on ketosis for a more sustained weight loss effort, say over months and not days?
Because we know it's (sadly) not possible to self-select an area for fat to shed with a healthy diet and exercise, the main thing we can do to target certain parts of the body is muscle-toning exercises. Thigh muscles are some of the strongest in the body, however, so you might be wondering how to go about slimming down the fat on your thighs without bulking up the muscle too much. We asked celebrity PT and founder of The Dan Roberts Group, Dan Roberts, to share his expert opinion:

While many professionals tout light bouts of resistance training for women, the truth is that light weight will only allow the body to adapt to so much. While it may seem counterintuitive, using heavier weights can have a more favorable outcome for weight loss.[7] Not only does heavy resistance training create a greater calorie expenditure for up to 24 hours post-workout, but it can also help you add muscle mass, which helps you burn more calories at rest!
Weight Watchers is a household name for the majority of Americans. Why? Because it works. In fact, the U.S News and World Report named this the best weight-loss diet for 2016 in their annual rankings — and with good reason. The balanced program lets you eat what you want, track your choices via a points system, and build a weight loss support network with fellow Weight Watchers' members.
Choose the turkey sandwich over pizza and you think you're set, but again, looks can be deceiving. A turkey sandwich that comes on focaccia with cheese and mayo can deliver 970 calories. Two slices of pepperoni pan pizza total 520 calories. Put your sandwich in a spinach wrap instead of regular bread? It's the same difference, says Tara Gidus, RD, a former spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. "My clients think they get more nutrients and save on calories with 'healthy bread,' but often that's not the case."

Português: Queimar a Gordura da Barriga Rapidamente, Español: quemar la grasa del estómago rápidamente, Italiano: Eliminare Velocemente la Pancetta, Deutsch: Bauchfett schnell verbrennen, Français: faire fondre rapidement la graisse du ventre, Русский: быстро сжечь жир на животе, 中文: 快速燃烧腹部脂肪, Nederlands: Snel buikvet verbranden, Čeština: Jak rychle spalovat tuk na břiše, Bahasa Indonesia: Cepat Membakar Lemak Perut, 日本語: 即効でお腹周りの脂肪を燃焼する, हिन्दी: तेजी से पेट की चर्बी घटाएं, العربية: حرق دهون منطقة البطن بسرعة, ไทย: ลดพุง, 한국어: 뱃살 빨리 빼는 법, Tiếng Việt: Đốt cháy Mỡ bụng Nhanh chóng

Ketosis works for weight loss in the short term, but that’s not why it’s so amazing. Short term weight loss is easy (I’ve lost at least 200 pounds of short term weight…because it always roared back on with a vengeance so I could lose it again!) When you look at keeping your weight off forever, ketosis provides a level of appetite suppression that is actually liberating. Ketosis helps you literally stop thinking about food all the time.


About: If there’s anyone who feels the pain of bouncing up and down with weight loss, it’s Emily. In 2011, she started working to shed the pounds, and got down to 151 by 2012. Then she went back up again...to 181. 2013 rolls around, and enter: her blog. Emily set out to lose the weight for good. She’s already down to 148, and although she only blogs about two times a month, her quirky style definitely makes them worth reading.
It’s pretty common for men to pack some extra poundage around their midsection. In fact, the average man is about 24lbs heavier today than men in 1960, according to stats from The State of Obesity—and the figures are rising. We’ve seen slimmer days, but don’t think this is a grim sentence, dooming you to eternal chubbiness. There are dozens, if not hundreds, of ways for you to burn belly fat—fast.

Katie Foster is a mother and healthy lifestyle blogger for Running For Cookies. After struggling with being overweight her entire life, constant yo-yo dieting, and her weight reaching a high of 253 pounds, she decided to make a change for good when her weight prevented her from teaching her son how to ride a bike. Katie documents her 125-pound weight loss journey and her battle with mental health, along with healthy recipes, running advice, and motivation that helped her reach her goals and accept herself on her blog.
Low carb diet plans, like paleo and keto diet, cut out the majority of high carbohydrate foods and processed foods, which can eliminate a lot of food options - most notably high sugar and high calorie foods like cookies, cakes, donuts, candy and many convenient snack choices. Even though it is entirely possible to gain weight on these diets, strictly adhering to the diet standards and concentrating on choosing healthier options, like the whole foods and fresh produce they emphasize, will help you cut a significant amount of unnecessary calories. Especially if you had a terrible looking diet to begin with. 
Doctors recommend aiming to lose ½ to 2 pounds per week, but you'll often lose weight faster in the first few weeks after changing your diet and exercise. If you're wondering why so many diet plans promise faster results, it's because they're trying to sell you something! Extreme programs can lead to health problems, so don't try them without a doctor's supervision.
Your weight loss story couldn’t have come at a better time. Congrats to you sweetie! It definitely isn’t an easy journey. My husband has started juicing, after watching a documentary over the weekend. I’m not a stress eater; however I do love my red wine. My recent weight gain started after I lost my mom to Pancreatic cancer in February 2015. I can’t get motivated to do much of anything. I have always weighed under 130 lb., but now I weigh 145 lb. Ugh! I have been on anti-depression medication ever since my daughter was born in 2003. I struggled with the baby blues big time. Now, at age 51, I know how important it is to be healthy and keep muscle. Again, good job!

Nutritional ketosis induced by carbohydrate restriction is often associated with major weight loss, which raises some important questions. Do ketones cause weight loss? Do ketones promote a metabolic condition whereby fat melts away to a greater extent than a non-ketogenic diet of equal energy content?  Alternatively, can a person maintain or even gain weight while in nutritional ketosis?  To explore the answers to these questions, we need to venture into the complex inter-relationships between keto-adaptation, appetite, energy balance and weight loss.
Jenn Mitchell is a mother and creator of Comeback Momma, a healthy living blog inspiring readers to live happier and healthier lives. After losing over 50 post-baby pounds and rebounding from postpartum depression twice, Jen became a successful blogger and Personal Trainer. When her anxiety and depression returned years later, she struggled to keep the weight off and rebounded 20 pounds. Now, she’s found a healthy balance and is on the right path toward health and happiness and is a true comeback momma! With the help of her blog contributor, Chrissy, a mother, dietician, and triathlete, the Comeback Momma blog is inspiring women to constantly strive to find the best within themselves.

“Most people who have been lean their whole lives have a much better understanding of proper portion size than people who are overweight,” says Deborah Riebe, Ph.D., a professor in the department of kinesiology at the University of Rhode Island. “If they go out to eat, they’re much more likely to ask for a doggie bag right away or to leave food on their plate rather than cleaning it up.”

Following all these tips won’t do your thighs much good if you don’t pay attention to how much you are eating of any given food. Using portion size is a great tool for controlling calorie intake. Portion sizes of foods are often based on regular household items that are easy for you to visualize. To get a better idea about portion size, click here.
About: Andie’s well-known for her New York Times bestselling memoir “It Was Me All Along” where she chronicles how she lost 135 pounds 10 years ago. But it’s her blog that drew us to her for this list, especially considering that she’s managed all this time to KEEP that weight off. Andie also wrote a cookbook, “Eating in the Middle,” featuring (mostly) healthy recipes. Plus, Andie’s blog is chock full of healthy recipes too (and the occasional indulgence), lessons she learned while losing weight and how she transformed her relationship with food and her body.
Tip #6 Pay attention to portion sizes. If you’re totally new to calorie counting, pull out your measuring cups and spoons, and invest in a kitchen scale. You only need to measure a few times before you’ll get the gist of how much you should be eating. Plus, check out Fitbit’s visual guide to portion sizes! When you have a rough idea of what 3 ounces of steak looks like (a deck of cards), or a cup of pasta (a tennis ball), entering your servings will be quicker, easier, and more accurate.

That’s because strength training helps you build muscle, which will replace body fat. In fact, strength training is one of the few activities you can do to spike the amount of calories you burn, even after you’re done with your workout. Bonus: When your metabolic rate becomes faster due to muscle growth, you’ll have a little more wiggle room in your diet if that’s something you struggle with, says Dr. Cheskin.

The effects of a high protein diet are dependent on overall calorie intake and results may be stronger with short-term studies compared to those looking at long-term effects. In one meta-analysis of trials comparing the long-term effects of low-fat diets with either high or low protein content, there were no significant differences in weight loss (45), whereas another meta-analysis of trials evaluating short-term effects suggested modest reductions in weight and body fat, compared to a standard protein diet (46). 

This is also commonly referred to as “cheat days”. But remember, it takes 3,500 calories to lose one pound. This also means it takes 3,500 calories to gain a pound – and it is a LOT easier to eat 3,500 calories than to cut the same amount. Having a full-blown cheat day can unravel all your hard work for the week if you’re not careful. Instead, have cheat “events” or cheat meals.
“I started my 78-pound weight-loss journey by tracking everything I ate with the Lose It! app. I track right after I finish because if I wait until later, I don’t always remember. Sometimes I’ll even record before I eat, so I know if I have enough calories for the day. That, paired with daily weigh-ins helps to keep me accountable.” —Kari Hammond, 42
Disclaimer: All information available here is purely for educational purposes only. Clickremedies.com does not provide medical advise. Neither the owners or employees of Clickremedies.com or the authors of the content provided take responsibility for any possible consequences resulting from treatment, procedure, exercise, dietary modification, action or application of medication which results from reading this site. Be aware that many of the techniques and remedies published on this site have not been evaluated in scientific studies.If you have, or suspect you have a health problem, you should consult your health care provider.
The female body is naturally slightly less insulin sensitive when progesterone levels are higher in the luteal phase (after ovulation, in the last two weeks of the cycle). This means it does not tolerate carbohydrate as well in these weeks. Women who are diabetic know this well. I’ve read many studies and heard from many women I know that their insulin injections have to increase in the second half of their cycle because their blood sugar levels are inordinately high.
Stay motivated. Often times, people lose motivation to stick with a diet or an exercise routine. Finding a reason to stay motivated beyond belly fat goals, like overcoming a genetic predisposition to excess body weight or working toward fitting into your favorite article of clothing again, can help you stay motivated to meet your fitness and lifestyle goals.[40]
3) How much of your advice was specifically tailored to Nate based on his body type and body fat percentage? For instance, I’m at 16-17% BF and 175 lb, so would my theoretical five-day dehydration and subsequent rehydration be factored differently, or is the regime pretty well standard? (I am NOT aiming to do this, by the way, but am curious about spreading the five-day concept into a six-week one, with less emphasis on the serious restrictions used for Nate’s Day 4 and 5.)
While it’s often assumed that bread is off-limits when you’re trying to lose belly fat, the right bread may actually expedite the process. Switching to sprouted bread can help out carb-lovers eager to get their fix without going up a belt size, thanks to the inulin content of sprouted grains. The results of a study published in Nutrition & Metabolism reveal that found that pre-diabetic study subjects whose diets were supplemented with inulin shaved off more belly fat and total weight than those whose meal plans didn’t pack this healthy prebiotic fiber.
Another key approach: forgive your failures. Studies show that people who “mess up” their diet plan and then “give up” end up gaining, while people who forgive themselves and move on continue to lose. It’s called self-acceptance.8,9 Look, we’re human. Birthdays, office parties, weddings, random movie nights: they happen, and we celebrate by having the amazing chocolate cake, or Betsy’s famous buffalo chicken dip, waaaay too much champagne, or buttered popcorn. Expect this, enjoy, and then move on.
Good question, this depends on the athlete and if they compete 100% natural or not. Most bodybuilders will consume high volumes of water the week before the competition and taper just as was done in this example above while eliminating sodium intake as much as possible. Some bodybuilders will use diuretics at the same time or natural products a few days before to increase water excretion.

You may think you're vigilant about watching what you eat, but research shows that stolen bites and tastes can rack up a few hundred uncounted calories, which can put on pounds fast. Eating while distracted can cause mindless eating, too. When women who normally watched their portions had lunch in different situations, they ate 15% more (72 additional calories) while listening to a detective story, compared with when they ate alone and free of any distractions, found a study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Christina Russell is a Celebrity Trainer, author, and the writer behind the healthy living blog, Body Rebooted. Christina lost over 60 pounds in just 5 months incorporating a gluten-free diet and fitness routine and created her blog as a place to share her gluten-free recipes along with the ins and outs of her weight loss journey. Her blog has since evolved into a full-blown healthy living website that provides resources for you to reach your goals.
If you are looking for a satisfying and delicious meat-free Bolognese sauce, you must add this Hearty Vegetable Bolognese sauce to your dinner menu this week! 🍝 This recipe gets its meaty texture from walnuts (inspired by @livingkitchen — a local #CLT-area fav!) and is a healthy and filling vegetarian dish we LOVE in our house!⠀⠀ ⠀⠀ INGREDIENTS ⠀⠀ ⠀⠀ 2 cups peeled, chopped carrots ⠀⠀ ½ cup chopped bell peppers⠀⠀ 8 ounces fresh mushrooms⠀⠀ 2 small yellow onions⠀⠀ ¼ cup kalamata olives⠀⠀ ¼ cup Cabernet Sauvignon ⠀⠀ 3 garlic cloves, peeled⠀⠀ 1 cup walnuts ⠀⠀ 1½ teaspoons Italian seasoning ⠀⠀ 1 teaspoon sea salt ⠀⠀ 1 25-ounce jar marinara sauce⠀⠀ ⠀⠀ DIRECTIONS ⠀⠀ ⠀⠀ In a food processor, shred the carrots, bell peppers, olives, mushrooms, onions and garlic until they are shredded into very fine pieces.⠀⠀ Drizzle a large, deep nonstick skillet with olive oil and heat to a medium-high heat. Add the shredded vegetables and allow them to cook down, as the water sweats out and they reduce in volume for about 5 minutes. Add the wine, reduce the heat and allow to simmer longer (approximately 7-10 minutes), until almost all of the liquid is gone.⠀⠀ While the vegetables are cooking, place the walnuts, Italian seasonings and sea salt into the food processor and grind into a course meal, taking care not to over grind, as a paste will form.⠀⠀ Add the walnuts to the skillet and stir.⠀⠀ Add the marinara sauce and stir to combine. Simmer on medium-low heat for another 10 minutes, stirring occasionally.⠀⠀ Serve on top of whole wheat spaghetti, zucchini noodles, spaghetti squash or your favorite pasta and enjoy!⠀⠀
I’m a nutrition graduate (MSc dietetics student) and I’m frankly shocked that this has been allowed to be published. It’s borderline “clean eating”, now proving to be an antecedent to eating disorders and pro Atkins. It also contradicts other articles written by Harvard: https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/carbohydrates/low-carbohydrate-diets/
“I lost weight with consistent exercise and diet. First I did Weight Watchers, then 5:2/The Fast Diet, then Whole30, and I'm finishing up with the Fast Metabolism Diet. For three years now I have been doing HIIT/kettlebell training three times a week, and it really has changed my body positively. I also spin two to three times a week—I’m a SoulCycle addict—and have really found workouts that fit my schedule and love the endorphins. My biggest advice would be to team up. Every time I have done so, I have realized more success. Whether it be my kettlebell training with my mom friends at bootcamp or dieting with a pal, it is so much easier to do it with a support system.”

I’d love to know what shakes you use. I’m a pretty picky eater who struggles to find the healthy options I can have that fit my tastes. I need a shake (protein/veggie/fruit/healthy) that I can suffer through to help me get some nutrients and fill me up when I’m wanting to grab those crackers or chocolate chips instead 🙂 I also need to give up diet soda because I know that enhances my salt/sugar cravings.

The fact of the matter is battling the bulge takes different strategies and approaches depending upon your genetics, your metabolism, your willpower, etc. What works for your buddy won’t necessarily be your be-all and end-all solution. To simplify things, we compiled plenty of tips to help rev your metabolism, lose your love handles, and unsheathe your abs. You’ll have to do some trial and error to deduce which ones work best for you (hey, losing weight is hard work). But if you put in the work (aka incorporate a few of these tips each week), you’ll be well on your way to a smaller waistline. Who said your glory days were in the past?
Some of us no longer have the strong joints we had as teenagers. Jogging is out of the question and walking doesn’t cut it. The good news is elliptical trainers provide an intense, low impact cardio workout. In fact, a 145-lb. person can burn about 300 calories in 30 minutes on an elliptical trainer. That’s about as many calories as running burns, but without the joint wear-and-tear.
Carrots ‘n’ Cake is written by a food and fitness blogger who also happens to be a mom. The blog provides meal plans, advice for those looking to get fit while dealing with chronic illnesses, and relatable posts about maintaining health while balancing motherhood. You can also find some great recipes, like these blender chocolate chip cookies. Visit the blog.
Drinks: I started drinking so much water! I found a water bottle I love and brought it everywhere with me. If you don't have a water bottle you like, find one and have it on you 24/7. Along with water, I'm a huge coffee drinker so that is regularly apart of my diet. I also drink Diet sodas (specifically Diet Dr. Pepper and Diet Coke). Other than that, I don't drink much else. I know a lot of people tend to consume extra calories through drinks but I don't have as much issues there.

"Order without looking at the menu. Almost every restaurant has the basics—veggies, grains, and protein. If you go in knowing what you want, I guarantee you'll be able to make a meal. If you're too uncomfortable to ask for what you need, tell a white lie: Say you're allergic. I know it's controversial to suggest this, but women in particular can really have trouble standing up for their own needs. So if you want the broccoli soup puréed without cream, tell the waiter you're lactose intolerant."
Brittany! Just catching up on your blog. What a beautiful post! Loved every word sweet friend. I couldn’t be more proud of you for sharing all of that. You are absolutely stunning, but what really shines is your honesty and kind heart. This was so inspiring and motivating for me because I need to loose a few pounds this summer and I get frustrated so easily! I’m a stress eater too. Can’t wait to hear some of your healthy meal/snack ideas! I hate to say I told you so about sharing this post.. but I told you so. 😉
“Once you decide on the method that you’re going use to lose weight, put the blinders on every well-meaning friend or family member who thinks it’s not a good idea. For me, it was raw juicing. Along with a healthy diet, it helped me lose 48 pounds and keep it off for over a year.” —Jennifer Devlin Waller, 48, founder and CEO of Celtic Complexion Luxury Artisan Skincare

Ketosis is a cornerstone of becoming Bulletproof; listen to these recent Bulletproof Radio episodes with ketosis experts Jimmy Moore and Dominic D’Agostino to get the scoop on how and why it works. It’s what happens when your body switches to burning fat instead of sugar for energy, and it only happens when you eat almost no carbohydrates, or when you hack it using certain kinds of oils.


Another key approach: forgive your failures. Studies show that people who “mess up” their diet plan and then “give up” end up gaining, while people who forgive themselves and move on continue to lose. It’s called self-acceptance.8,9 Look, we’re human. Birthdays, office parties, weddings, random movie nights: they happen, and we celebrate by having the amazing chocolate cake, or Betsy’s famous buffalo chicken dip, waaaay too much champagne, or buttered popcorn. Expect this, enjoy, and then move on.


Truthfully, as Nate says in the Bigger Smaller Bigger book, training style is less important than nutrition for gaining muscle mass. There are dozens of ways to train to stimulate muscle mass, all of them effective. As long as you activate as many motor units as possible, use a proper progression (doing more/doing better each time), and recove adequately, the rest is just personal preference. Once that’s all taken care of, it’s about food amounts and types. All of which we detail in BSB, if you want to revisit it.


It’s hard to keep track of how much we eat. But a lot of research shows that when we keep track of intake, we eat less. This is called self-monitoring, and why writing down what I ate and weighed helped me.4,5,6 There are so many ways to do this nowadays: from the old-school paper-and-pencil method, to apps like MyFitnessPal, or the Weight Watchers points system.7

Get In Shape For Women is a small group, high intensity interval training (HIIT), personal training program with a purpose of empowering women through body transformation. At Get In Shape For Women there are no intimidating crowds or waiting for equipment, all GISFW workouts are delivered by appointment in a private, upscale boutique fitness studio. A highly skilled personal trainer works with up to 4 women at a time, for 30 or 60 minute sessions delivering our unique 4 component system that is scientifically proven to work:
Secondly, there are a few moves you will want to avoid such as weighted squats and lunges. Why? These grow your legs and glutes. If you want to thin out your thighs, it simply does not make sense to do them. The added weight will create tension on your muscle, thus cause them to work harder the next set which leads to hypertrophy (increased muscle size).

About: Amy started her weight loss journey after she ran the Disney Princess Half Marathon at her heaviest weight ever — and realized it was time to make a change. Fast forward a couple years, she's lost 65 pounds, motivated especially by her father, who she calls her “biggest cheerleader.” Then her father passed away, and things went downhill a bit. Amy gained 40 pounds back and in 2014 started a weight loss blog to embark on the ultimate quest: signing up for races (her most recent was the Star Wars Half Marathon) and letting readers know that she feels their pain — and, most importantly, that they can get through it and make the changes and run races, just like she is.
Hi Karen! I love Sparkpeople! I have been using there tracking tools for 4 years now and love it! It really helps you keep on track. I get ya about weight! I know I can’t eat like I used to too! It’s hard, but well worth the effort! Thank you for your kind words and don’t worry you lose those last ten pounds! I’m working on 10 pounds myself! Just think positive, be true to yourself and know you can do it!!!

These are fantastic tips, and now that I’m in my thirties, and have just recently started exercising again, I am finding it’s harder to lose weight than I thought. I think the whole “not eating enough” aspect is my problem! I am definitely going to give it a try! Good for you for taking the steps to make healthy changes in your life, and cheers to continued success!


4. Fiber supplements. Jerky is very low in fiber, and you'll soon discover constipation. Take some kind of fiber supplement. I rely on drinking kefir, a type of drinkable yogurt that's very high in probiotics, to help regulate the digestive process. You can also take Dannon Activia which is comparable. Or, whatever you can do to add bulk, and maintain regularity.
Hey Stevo, absolutely not! All the weight loss is water weight and it all comes back pretty quickly. For someone who has 50 pounds to lose, they’d be looking for fat loss. And this certainly isn’t a fat loss plan. If you’re looking for something to help your friend, google “Lean Eating for Men”. It’s a weight loss coaching program that is designed to help people who typically have trouble with “compliance” (sticking to a diet for only 3 weeks). Hope that helps.
There is plenty that you can do to get even more out of your walks. Stephanie Cyr began her 102-pound weight loss journey by walking for an hour each night—but there was a catch. "I mapped out a 3-mile course that took me through the hills in my neighborhood," she says. Live in a flat area? Alternate 1 minute of super-fast walking with 1 minute of slower walking for a calorie-torching interval routine.
Some popular trends like the apple cider vinegar diet, green tea, coffee or cayenne pepper have been touted as special fat burning superfoods. The mechanisms behind a majority of these claims are not well understood, but typically involve optimizing absorption and digestion rates or increasing RMR temporarily through thermogenesis (100,101). And sometimes the positive effects are due to these foods decreasing appetite. 
#11 – Most importantly, set a goal and try to achieve it!  Don’t give up, even if you mess up for a day or two.  Just get back on that horse and keep going.  Along that note, you need to reward yourself!  If you reach a mini goal, then treat yourself to a pair of jeans, or something you desire.  I bought clothes at every 5lbs loss.  A little crazy, but it worked and I felt great!!
Demonising whole food groups isn’t helping anyone. Yes, cut down refined flour but only because it lacks fibre and micronutrients such as folate. Sugar isn’t great for your teeth and easy to over-consume, which is really the actual problem. It’s simple maths, consume more than you burn, regardless of whether it’s fat, sugar or protein, you gain weight. Consume less than you burn, you lose it.
Doctors recommend aiming to lose ½ to 2 pounds per week, but you'll often lose weight faster in the first few weeks after changing your diet and exercise. If you're wondering why so many diet plans promise faster results, it's because they're trying to sell you something! Extreme programs can lead to health problems, so don't try them without a doctor's supervision.
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