Take a walk through the supermarket, and you’ll be assaulted with aisle after aisle of low-fat and no-fat foods, “healthy” chips and cookies and juices and sodas galore. You likely already know that if you want to lose weight, cutting out processed foods and sweets is the first and most obvious step. But those healthy-sounding options can be just as bad, too.


Keep busy. Cutting calories can have you constantly thinking about food. And the fear of temptation can make you want to cut yourself off from social engagements. But studies suggest keeping your mind active, especially while dieting, can strengthen your willpower (89). And stress can affect your mental capacity to hold strong (90). Try to enjoy your days as much as possible and find activities that allow you to be creative, think strategically, or release stress.
About: On March 1, 2014, a visit to the doctor’s office really brought things home for Bobby. At 6 feet tall, Bobby weighed in at 345 pounds. To be at a healthy weight, his doctor said he needed to weigh 177 pounds, 168 pounds less than the weight he was at. In essence, Bobby realized he was essentially carrying around another person. The moment was the catalyst he needed to change. Rather than set any unrealistic expectations, Bobby decided to set the small, attainable goal of losing 2 pounds a week. So began his blog. And, guess what? It worked. Two years later, Bobby weighs in at 214 pounds (he looks great, by the way), and continues to take those small baby steps that are helping him achieve a healthy body. Bravo.
“Every morning I drink a cup of warm water with half a lemon squeezed into it, a teaspoon of apple cider vinegar, and a dash of cayenne pepper,” says Michelle Keough. This helps her start her day off on a healthy note while getting her hydrated after a long night. This trick, combined with eating meals built around protein and veggies, helped her lose 20 pounds and keep it off.
Well, there is plenty of research suggesting low-carb diets may be more beneficial than low fat, but there are also large, high-quality studies implying no difference between the two. The truth is, we don't know for sure. But what we can takeaway from the science is that everyone is a little different when it comes to dietary approaches and what works well for some may not work for all. We are in need of more individual approaches to dieting and more research looking at what variables we should be guided by.   
I want you to know you can find inspiration through healthy perspectives. It’s not about weighing 100 pounds and eating kale every day. You don’t have to run 10 miles every morning. It’s about finding balance and enjoying the journey. It’s about filling your world with a balance of all things – fitness, nutrition, faith, friendships, and all things. It’s about focusing on a healthy lifestyle that works for you.
I like this article and my heart goes out to everyone struggling with obesity. I think the comments demonstrate that no one method works for everyone. Because of both mental and physical genetic variation we must find the way that works for us. Clearly physical activity and essential nutrients are play a huge role in health and weight loss. How you accomplish these goals can be done in may ways. Thanks for sharing this info.
Your story demonstrates that the NY Times is sending so the wrong message with “Americans Blame Obesity on Willpower, Despite Evidence It’s Genetic” – by stating genetic predisposition and contrasting it against will power, they are asking people to resign themselves… ah.. its in my genes, sorry. What your and thousands of story e.g. on forum.lowcarber.org show is that will power has a lot to do with it – even if some people are more genetically predisposed than others, the epidemic isn’t here because our genes changed. I had a fairly similar story except the excess weight was due to stopping smoking, so it was tempting – I knew exactly how to lose weight, but did not want to start smoking again
However, if you feel The Lose Weight Diet is indeed right for you... let's get started. I have broken it all down into 3 phases. In order to fully understand and fully follow this weight loss plan effectively, you MUST read through each phase in order. Do not skip anything or jump ahead. Just sit back and relax. You're only 3 steps away from losing weight... for free. Start here:

Once keto-adapted, people consistently report that the intensity of their hunger and cravings is diminished; (Boden 2005, Mckenzie 2017) and that the daily swings in energy and mood they experienced on a high carb intake are reduced, if not banished.  These problems tend to be replaced with a consistent sense of energy and mental alertness as long as a well-formulated ketogenic lifestyle is followed (Volek & Phinney 2012).
Monica Olivas is a holistic health coach and certified running coach. And as the blog name implies, she loves to run and eat! Running helped her shed 20 pounds, and she’s since competed in 50 half-marathons and 30 marathons. Run Eat Repeat has giveaways for runners, tips for improving distance, and all kinds of healthy, delicious recipe ideas to fuel your next run. Visit the blog.
Unfortunately, despite the expertise of these highly regarded scientists, they systematically mis-calculated the energy needs of the study subjects.  As a result, instead of everyone getting an accurately-dosed energy balancing diet, they were under-fed by about 300 Calories per day.  Because all of the subjects got the high carb diet for the first month and the ketogenic diet for the second month, the natural effect of restricting energy intake by 10% would have been a small but significant reduction in resting energy expenditure that would have occurred progressively over the 2-month study duration.  In other words, by significantly underfeeding the study subjects and always administering the ketogenic diet in the second month, the deck was stacked against the ketogenic diet.  Taking this into account, the 2-4% rise in daily energy expenditure in the second month would probably have been double this amount had the study been properly designed.  Whatever the true effect, these numbers are fairly small as noted above; but this is a study in which the odds were tipped in favor of the status quo through clever experimental design, and in which the conclusions were not justified by the data.  
Kenlie’s inspiring weight loss journey is the foundation of her blog, All The Weigh. Kenlie has lost over 100 pounds, two different times. Although this time around she’s only a few pounds shy of reaching her lowest weight as an adult (284 pounds)—she has learned that loving and accepting yourself is the most important part of the journey. Her blog is a place where she shares her thoughts, feelings, and everything that has influenced her throughout her transformation to better health.
Thank you so much, Lauren! Staying healthy is SO hard when you’re trying to prioritize and balance out the rest of life’s demands, but it thrills me to hear that your boyfriend likes my quinoa recipes! I got really lucky when I was testing out ways to eat quinoa. It’s one of the few health foods my husband will eat! Good luck to you and your boyfriend – keep me updated! 🙂
The calories you get from foods and beverages mainly come from macronutrients or “macros”. These macros include carbohydrates, protein, and fat. Carbohydrates and protein provide roughly four calories per gram - meaning a food or beverage item with 10g of protein will provide 40 calories from protein. Fat is the most calorically dense macro and provides nine calories per gram, so a food or beverage containing 10g of fat will provide 90 calories from fat - more than twice the amount of energy as protein and carbohydrates.
Stack habits to trigger healthy behavior. Tying a healthy behavior, like sit-ups, to an existing daily behavior, like waking up in the morning, will not only help you remember to perform your healthy behavior, but could also make it become a more permanent habit. This phenomenon has also been explored using emotional states, locations, timing and people, to help trigger healthy behaviors in individuals. And it works even better if you tie in a healthy reward at the end. 
You don’t have to be the next Usain Bolt in the making to enjoy some serious belly-slimming results from hitting the track from time to time. Even a moderate-rate jog a few times a week can blast through that belly fat; in fact, a study conducted at Duke University Medical Center found that, over the course of an eight-month study, overweight adult study subjects who jogged 12 miles a week lost the most belly fat and burned 67 percent more calories than participants who did an equivalent amount of resistance exercise, or a combination of cardio and resistance work.
While you’re on your cardio kick, incorporate more inclines to really target your thighs. If you walk on a treadmill, ramp up the incline manually. If you walk or jog outside, find a trail with some hills. You’ll immediately start to feel the burn in your inner thighs and glutes; that’s because walking or jogging on an incline targets the thighs and buns more than walking on a flat surface.
Lisa began Workout Mommy in 2007. Back then, she was a busy mom of two who found out that continuing her pre-motherhood commitment to health and fitness wasn’t as easy as she thought it would be. Now a single mother of four, she admits it’s even hard to find the time to commit to fitness. She writes her blog to inspire others to make that time, and holds herself accountable for finding it as well. Visit the blog.
On my weight loss and fitness blog I don’t have any links of my own to anything, there are too many links out there promising you things that are just not true and don’t belong in a realistic world. I started my blog as my lady has had a problem all of her life, so I though she can’t be the only one so I started to blog about it. I do have ad-sense on my site, I believe a bit of income for our hard work is OK.
Great informative article for over all healthy weight loss, however in my experience you cannot spot train fat loss. Your body simply burns fat from wherever it naturally decides, with a healthy diet and exercise routine. That said, you can of course work on building muscle on your thighs, which helps burn fat over all. My advice to anyone would be not to get too transfixed on where fat is coming off because your body will make up its own mind, instead focus on eating healthily and getting more active, simple science 🙂
Katie Foster is a mother and healthy lifestyle blogger for Running For Cookies. After struggling with being overweight her entire life, constant yo-yo dieting, and her weight reaching a high of 253 pounds, she decided to make a change for good when her weight prevented her from teaching her son how to ride a bike. Katie documents her 125-pound weight loss journey and her battle with mental health, along with healthy recipes, running advice, and motivation that helped her reach her goals and accept herself on her blog.
About: Shae is a Wichita native, and, as she puts it, she is “not skinny.” But she’s blogging about fitness and healthy eating anyway, with a few (ok, a lot) of complaints. Her blog features an impressive combination of her quirky, laugh-out-loud style and visually stimulating photos that tell the story or show the recipes as well as the writing itself does. Once you start reading, strap in. Because you’re not going to want to stop.
Thanks so much for sharing your story! I saw your Instagram post opening up this post for questions. My question is about your arms. How was the skin under your arm after losing the weight? Did you do any exercises to target that area? Your arms look great & it is giving me hope that if I can get some more weight off mine will continue to improve. Would love to know any secrets there!
5. Start with one small change. "I realized that a lot of sugar and calories that I consumed came from drinks, so I challenged myself to drink only water—no sugary drinks!—for 30 days. After just one successful week, I decided to add another challenge: to cut back on the carbs I was eating. When I did eat bread, I switched to wheat bread and when I wanted rice, I used brown rice."
Our focus for March 2019 will be eating more plant-based, whole foods. Lots of fruits, vegetables, nuts, unrefined whole grain foods, seeds, beans, plant-based meat substitutes, etc. Do you have to go completely Vegan or completely cut out meat for this challenge? NO! It's up to you to decide just how meatless you want to go.  Join us! Goals for … [Read More...]
About: Caitlin’s approach to healthy living is three-pronged: mind, spirit and body. She believes that finding true health means finding balance in all three, and her mission with her blog is to take people along the way as she figures that out. She’s a self-taught yogi with a passion for natural, balanced food and fitness — all things she shares exponentially in her blog to help others figure it out too.
I loved reading your weight loss history. I’ve been struggling since my childhood with my weight and I still continue to struggle with it. I also used sparks people back in the day and have recently began counting my points. I’ve been able to drop 10 pounds but I’ve been stuck for the past month. It’s been a frustrating journey but I continue to stay focused. I like the tips that you have shared. I truly believe in moderation. I don’t like giving up a certain food item. Thanks again for your tips! If you have anymore please share 🙂
It's also important to consider the dangerous health effects of not eating in certain populations, like those with insulin dependent diabetes. If you are taking insulin and not eating, your body does not have glucose available to utilize and you could become hypoglycemic. If you are considering intermittent fasting as a way to control calories, always speak with your doctor beforehand. 
Consider a low-carbohydrate (Atkins) diet. The theory is that overweight people eat too many carbohydrates. A diet rich in carbs causes the body to release insulin.[8] The body controls glucose (sugar) by producing insulin. The insulin moves the sugar out of your blood, and some of it may be converted into fat. The low-carb diet structures your meals around proteins, soy-products, vegetables, fruits, and nuts to avoid this. While you want to limit the number of carbs you eat, you don't want to completely cut them out of your diet. Try to have carbs at least 20% of the time. Your body does need glucose in order to function, and carbs are a good source for that. Foods that are allowed[9] as part of the low-carb diet:
Emily Ho is a fashion-lover, social media strategist, writer, and lifestyle blogger for Authentically Emmie. In 2009, Emmie’s blog began as a weight loss blog, but over the years has evolved into something so much more. After losing over 110 pounds, she shifted her focus from losing weight and seeking validation from the scale to living a healthy lifestyle with the body she has, and not hating it. Her now healthy living blog is a platform to discuss life, plus-size fashion, body positivity, and more!
Leafy Greens – Help you feel satisfied longer, boost your metabolism and turn off your hunger receptors. You will eat less and lose more belly fat just by increasing your leafy greens! They’re low in calories and high in fiber, making them the perfect weight loss food. Not a fan? Try one of our yummy green smoothies. Examples include spinach, romaine lettuce, kale, bok choy, arugula, chard, and mustard greens.
“My motivation for losing the baby weight and getting back in shape is to set an example for my kids on how important it is to be healthy, strong and fit. I've known Brooke Taylor of Taylored Fitness NY LTD for many years, so when she created the five-month program, I knew I had to get on board! I incorporate my gym time into my daily schedule, like brushing my teeth, so it's part of my day. If something comes up or there's a school activity, I rearrange my schedule to fit it in. I do meal prep on Sundays so I always have healthy snacks and meals on hand in the fridge to grab and go with my busy schedule. Also, this program allows you to do workouts anywhere and gives endless recipe ideas and guidelines. Working out every day is my therapy. I believe a mother is the heart and strength of a family, and in order to run the household, you need to be healthy, fit and strong!”

artificial sweeteners (6) Atkins (7) Body Set Weight (11) caloric reduction (23) calories (33) calories in calories out (11) cancer (15) carbohydrates (48) childhood obesity (10) cholesterol (8) cortisol (7) diabetes (64) diabetes reversal (5) dietary fat (25) exercise (15) fasting (35) fatty liver (6) fibre (9) fructose (6) glycemic index (9) green tea (5) heart disease (18) homeostasis (5) Hormonal Obesity Theory (12) hormones (35) IDM (5) insulin (69) insulin resistance (46) intermittent fasting (13) LCHF (6) low fat (6) meal timing (10) metabolic syndrome (33) metabolism (27) nutrition (10) obesity (89) pcos (8) protein (9) saturated fat (6) sugar (13) T2D (8) thermodynamics (6) total energy expenditure (14) type 2 diabetes (10) weight loss (89)
Currently there is no research showing that juice cleanses or detox diets are beneficial to weight loss or that they should be recommended at all. Even though it is possible to cut a significant amount of calories by only drinking juice, you could also be missing out on some essential nutrition - like protein, fiber and healthy fats. Not to mention, this type of diet is not sustainable and you might end up gaining all the weight back as soon as you start eating again. 
Walk when you can. If you do nothing else, walk. Walking is an overlooked and underrated exercise. Depending on your weight and your pace, you can burn anywhere from 100-400 calories per hour walking.[15] And as we all know, walking doesn't take it out of you like running, biking, or swimming does. Find a walking partner and work on burning calories together!

Use the meal as a reward for a week’s worth of hard work, or the completion of a project you’ve been dreading. “It’s OK for people to blow one meal a week without feeling guilty,” says James W. Anderson, M.D., director of the Metabolic Research Group at the University of Kentucky in Lexington. “If you follow a healthy diet 95% of the time, you can relax and enjoy yourself the other 5% of the time without gaining weight.”

I’ve always been one of those “all or nothing” kind of people. That combined with zero will power led to me taking every single item out of our pantry and refrigerator and giving it ALL away. I remember having boxes and boxes of food in our butler’s pantry. Following his “ingredient guidelines”, I loaded our house with only food in line with his program. I didn’t need to lose like ten pounds. I needed to lose one hundred. It wasn’t going to be one of those “let’s ease into this” kind of diet. I needed a complete overhaul.
●Personalize your portions. If you’re a woman eating with a man, customize your portions to suit your body’s needs, says Sass. That might mean more veggies and smaller servings of protein and foods with starch and fat. For example, on burrito night, skip the tortilla in favor of a bed of greens, and stick to a piece of lean protein the size of a smartphone, a small scoop of a healthful starch such as brown rice and a dollop of guacamole.

Beth has struggled with her weight for nearly her entire life. Overweight since puberty and then obese throughout high school and college, Beth tipped the scales at 250 pounds. In early 2009, she resolved to take better care of herself, which included quitting smoking and running for exercise. Initially, Beth didn't drop weight as quickly as she would’ve liked, so she took a look at her eating habits. She joined Weight Watchers where she learned how food should be measured and weighed, and how much she should eat in a day.
“Once you decide on the method that you’re going use to lose weight, put the blinders on every well-meaning friend or family member who thinks it’s not a good idea. For me, it was raw juicing. Along with a healthy diet, it helped me lose 48 pounds and keep it off for over a year.” —Jennifer Devlin Waller, 48, founder and CEO of Celtic Complexion Luxury Artisan Skincare
Brittany! Just catching up on your blog. What a beautiful post! Loved every word sweet friend. I couldn’t be more proud of you for sharing all of that. You are absolutely stunning, but what really shines is your honesty and kind heart. This was so inspiring and motivating for me because I need to loose a few pounds this summer and I get frustrated so easily! I’m a stress eater too. Can’t wait to hear some of your healthy meal/snack ideas! I hate to say I told you so about sharing this post.. but I told you so. 😉
Work your core. When many people think of core strengthening, they think of stomach crunches. Crunches are helpful for building abdominal muscles, but contrary to popular belief, crunches won't do much to lose the layer of fat stored in your belly, and can actually cause significant damage to the spine.[34] Instead, try a workout routine that strengthens your whole core, like yoga, or try abdominal presses and planking.[35]
The effects of a high protein diet are dependent on overall calorie intake and results may be stronger with short-term studies compared to those looking at long-term effects. In one meta-analysis of trials comparing the long-term effects of low-fat diets with either high or low protein content, there were no significant differences in weight loss (45), whereas another meta-analysis of trials evaluating short-term effects suggested modest reductions in weight and body fat, compared to a standard protein diet (46). 

Yep, I second the other comment here. HS wrestlers (also, many other grappling sport athletes) aren’t given the full 24 hours to recover from depletion. Some sports have mat-side weigh-ins. Others are just given a few hours after weigh-in to replenish. For these sports, athletes are best served focusing on year-round nutrition strategies, ones that help them stay at a weight very close to the weight they’d like to compete at.
About: Jess doesn’t blog as often as she used to, but every once in awhile she’ll pop in to share her latest life experiences, and, when she does, it’s sure to touch you deeply. Jess started blogging in 2013 to document her training for her first marathon, but quickly found that running ran in her veins. She uses it as a way to cope with life’s hardships and adventures — and takes her readers along a relatable journey as she does.

I try my very hardest not to compare myself to others. Everyone is going to have a different journey. It’s hard when I can look at people that seem like they can eat whatever they want and not have to work hard to look great. I get that. But my journey is about the progress I an making and discovering my best self. I found a community to celebrate accomplishments together, which was a game changer. It is helpful, fun, and encouraging having buddies to journey with.


(The main potentially-lethal drugs used by pro athletes are: Diuretics, insulin, mitochondrial OXPHOS uncouplers like DNP, EPO, amphetamines, painkillers such as vicodin, & growth hormone. Natural testosterone and, worse, DHT or over-the-counter testosterone precursors, can have unpleasant side-effects. Oral anabolic steroids stress the liver. Injectable anabolic steroids, by contrast, have never been demonstrated to be dangerous to healthy ADULT men in any study, never been implicated in a death, and may have health benefits because they are less toxic than the natural testosterone they displace. They ARE dangerous to high-school athletes as they disrupt normal growth. Simply having more muscle, however acquired, is life-shortening due to increased metabolic demands, mitochondrial oxidation, cardiovascular stress, and the down-regulation of FOXO-dependent repair pathways caused by muscle growth.)
There’s a reason everyone harps on about protein: Not only does it help keep you full, but it’s also responsible for repairing the tiny tears caused by strength training in your muscles. This helps them grow bigger and stronger, nudging out body fat in the process. As a general rule of thumb, aim to get at least 70 grams of protein throughout the day, says Dr. Cheskin. (These high-protein foods can help you reach that goal.)
A little garlic in your meals could mean a lot less weight around your middle. The results of a Korean study found that mice given a high-fat diet supplemented with garlic lost significantly more weight and abdominal fat than those who just ate fatty foods. Even better, they also improved their liver health, making it easier to stay healthy and burn off that excess fat in the long term. For more flavorful ways to make your food more enjoyable, turn to the 20 Spicy Recipes That Fire Up Your Metabolism and watch those pounds melt away.
Believe in Yourself. For years we’ve been told we only have a certain amount of willpower, but more recent studies are showing that may not be the case. The amount of willpower you have depends on your genetic make-up, how often you exercise it, and how much you believe in yourself. Telling yourself that you have an unlimited amount of self-discipline could be the key to mastering your goals (87,88). 

In short: it’s complicated! Clearly, it’s not as simple as “estrogen makes you fat” or “estrogen prevents weight loss.” And like most things in life, there’s a happy medium. There’s a healthy range of estrogen that brings nothing but benefits, but too little or too much estrogen can cause problems. Think Goldilocks: it’s not about demonizing estrogen (or anything else); it’s about finding the balance.
2) We humans vary greatly one from another based upon inherited characteristics such as calories per kg burned by resting muscle (Bogardus 1992), aerobic fitness (Klissorous 1971), and body fat distribution (Bouchard 1990). As postulated in our blog post, it is very possible that we humans also differ in our responses to a well-formulated ketogenic diet, where some people actually experience an increase in metabolic energy use when in nutritional ketosis. Certainly the 2016 NuSI/Hall might offer a rich pile of data to dig through to see if some of those 17 individuals appeared to have an accentuated REE or TEE during the second month of that 300 kcal/day energy restricted diet. Thus one person’s accentuated response to a ketogenic diet may not be reflected in the experience of someone else doing exactly the same thing. We frequently hear stories about this from married couples. N Engl J Med. 1990 May 24;322(21):1477-82.
As to your criticism of my remark, “made me cry”, this was not a criticism of the article but a Criticism of the MEDICAL SCHOOLS which overlook teaching the next generation of Medicos about NUTRITION and all matters connected with nutrition – but especially INSULIN, which is in some ways similar to Vitamin C, in that without the latter there would be NO LIFE, as we know it, on planet Earth. Without INSULIN the would be no Mammalian life, and we humans are just another mammal.

You aren't tracking all of your calories. Are you tracking all of your food and beverages, every day, including weekends and cheat days? Even if you are tracking most days and staying within your calorie range, you might be doing more damage than you think on off days. Small snacks and caloric beverages, including alcohol, can add up quickly if you aren't accounting for them. Aim to be more diligent and see how close you are to hitting your calorie range on average each week. 
Let’s go back to the beginning. I was always thin-ish. From my skinny teenage years to “just a healthy weight” college years, I was always thin-ish. Like I maybe topped 130lbs by the age of 21. Like most of you may know, Mark and I started dating at 14, got married at 20, started a business at 22 and then graduated college by 23. By the time we graduated college, we had somehow managed to build a legit company… APF, Inc. What literally began as Mark’s desire to be self-employed combined with his amazing gift of self-taught construction skills and my marketing “abilities”, quickly went from a backyard hobby to a full fledged stone countertop company. He spent his junior year of college fabricating granite in my Uncle’s backyard with a $2,500 saw loan from my uncle, a rope and a truck to maneuver the slabs along with a big humongous dream. This is going somewhere I promise ;-). He took Tuesday/Thursday classes and worked Monday, Wednesday and Fridays fabricating in the ole’ backyard. I was answering client e-mails and returning client calls between classes and at night while we worked at a local restaurant on the weekends. By our senior year, our company had grown just enough to afford for us to lease our own fabrication facility and that’s when life started to officially get CRAZY. It was amazing but it was absolutely INSANE. Once Mark graduated in December 2004, he was able to devote his full attention to the company and then I joined him when I graduated in May 2005. Upon my graduation in 2005, we had just moved to a much larger fabrication location, had approximately 11 additional employees and we were opening up a separate showroom location in downtown Monroe, GA. As exciting and wonderful as it all was, it was a stress that I cannot put into words. We had both worked so hard to grow the company yet didn’t quite realize what we were getting ourselves into. As two 23 year olds “self-thrust” into suddenly owning a company, we started to truly bring the phrase “Work Hard, Play Hard” to reality. Well as much fun as it was at times, the stress was intense. From managing employees to handling customers and issues and bills and everything in between, I got to a point where I started taking anxiety medication. Biggest mistake EVER.

Heather Gannoe-Hart is an avid runner, adventure seeker, Exercise Physiologist, and writer for her blog Relentless Forward Commotion. For Heather, running started as an attempt to shed some pregnancy weight after having her first baby—eventually, it turned into a passion that kick-started a new outlook on life. Relentless Forward Commotion is a place where she shares her passion for fitness, the outdoors, and the newest adventure she encounters, whether its trail running, mud runs, obstacle courses, cycling, or hiking. Her fitness journey will inspire you to step outside your comfort zone, try something new, and see the world in an entirely new way.

Good fats vs. bad fats: Omega 3 fatty acids and monounsaturated fats are good for your system and will actually help you lower your cholesterol. Nuts, olive oil, seed oil, and fish all contain these ‘good fats.’ Trans and saturated fats are the things that will make your thighs (or other body parts) larger. These include most processed food, candy, cakes, etc.
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