Boeing's pilot training is under scrutiny, as investigators analyze data from the Ethiopian Airlines crash that killed 157 people. CBS News has learned U.S. pilots were given initial training of 56 minutes on an iPad about the differences between new Boeing Max planes and older 737s. New evidence shows similarities between the Ethiopian Airlines crash and the Lion Air crash in Indonesia in October. Kris Van Cleave reports.

The journal "Yale Scientific" reveals that the phenomenon of targeted weight loss, while intuitively appealing, is essentially a myth. Focusing your exercises on your thighs can help improve muscle tone, but it won't necessarily help you lose thigh fat in a hurry. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), fat loss occurs across the body in response to a calorie deficit. You can create a calorie deficit through aerobic exercise, strength training and a reduced caloric intake. You will need to create a deficit of 3,500 calories for each pound of fat you want to lose.

Ketosis is a cornerstone of becoming Bulletproof; listen to these recent Bulletproof Radio episodes with ketosis experts Jimmy Moore and Dominic D’Agostino to get the scoop on how and why it works. It’s what happens when your body switches to burning fat instead of sugar for energy, and it only happens when you eat almost no carbohydrates, or when you hack it using certain kinds of oils.
Mind blowing, I know, but it really is that simple. The amount of food you eat directly affects your weight. Though we don't recommend it, you can even lose weight eating junk food, as long as you maintain a calorie control. If you don't believe me, take it from a professor who wanted to prove this theory by losing weight on a soda, cookie and chip diet. (1). Or this guy who lost 27 pounds eating Twinkies. 
Just because you may not have access to open water—or a crew team—doesn't mean you can't work this fat-blasting cardio workout into your go-to gym routine. Not only does rowing get your heart rate way up, which helps you blast calories and burn fat, but it also works muscles in your legs, core, arms, shoulders, and back that you may not be used to using, which "surprises" your body and helps you increase muscle, says Penfold. She recommends this belly fat-blasting circuit, which is great for beginners and pros alike: Begin with 20 seconds of rowing followed by 10 seconds of rest, and look at how many meters you traveled in that time. (Don't get off the rowing machine or even let go of the handle when you rest, says Penfold.) Repeat this eight times, trying to beat your distance each time. When you're finished with this 4-minute circuit, row a fast 500 meters and note how long it takes you. "That's the number you'll want to match or beat during your next rowing session," says Penfold.
the perfect post for me to read today as I try to get back on track starting this week. I have a goal in mind but I’m not good with strict,regimented routines. I do better with smart/sensible/common sense choices – ie dont eat processed foods, portion control, stay away from fried/sugary foods etc. So glad I read this post, perfect motivation for a monday morning!
While there is research to show foods can create a minor uptick in metabolism after eating them, the effects are fairly minimal and short lived. Keep in mind that thermogenesis only represents a small portion of BMR (10%), and even with a large upswing, the effects don't stick for more than a few hours - resulting in only tiny increases in calorie burn over 24 hours. 
Absolutely! Doctors are supposed to consider, screen for, and treat any underlying issues that could be causing weight gain or difficulty losing weight. As above, “Once we screen for (and treat) any contributing medical problems that could be causing weight gain (low thyroid function, polycystic ovarian syndrome, prediabetes, among others), or psychological issues (bulimia, binge-eating disorder, depression, anxiety), I encourage a diet-and-lifestyle approach for many reasons, among them my own personal experience.”
And my motivation is people! I have a friend that goes to almost all of my gym classes with me, so I look forward to going just so I can see her! I found running buddies who go to races with me, so running a 5k is actually fun(ish) and it’s more of a social experience than physical torture. And my Fitbit helps me to be more conscious of my movement on a daily basis. I don’t know why, but those silly little flashing lights make me want to get my 10,000 steps in everyday!
We’ve all seen the ads for weight loss programs promising 10 pounds of weight loss in a week or extreme weight loss in a month. And unless you’ve been living under a rock, you’ve probably also seen or heard of television shows, like "The Biggest Loser", where contestants are losing insane amounts of weight quickly and shrinking before your eyes week after week. The thing is, these examples are not realistic for everyone and usually not sustainable in the real world. In fact, most "Biggest Loser" contestants gain the weight back after the show (21).
Once your body runs out of glycogen stores, it is forced to break down protein and fat for energy, pending how much oxygen is available. And it typically takes about 12 hours for this to occur. In theory one would assume working out fasted in the morning - after more than 12 hours without intake - would promote more fat burning. But the science does not support this (112,113). In addition, working out fasted may effect your energy and strength, making your workout a little less intense than if you have fueled prior. These factors could effect your ability to build lean mass and perform. 
That’s all good – but on the other hand, estrogen also has a very tangled and complicated relationship with adipose tissue (body fat). Fat cells aren’t just inert blobs of energy storage sitting around on your hips. Actually, fat tissue is a very active part of the hormonal system, and one of its biggest jobs is to produce estrogen. Fat tissue contains an enzyme called aromatase, which converts testosterone to estrogen – estrogen comes from other places as well (most obviously the ovaries), but fat is certainly an important part of the process.
Noam Tamir, C.S.C.S, founder of TS Fitness, also says that metabolic resistance training and high-intensity interval training is a solid way to reduce fat all over, including belly fat. “These [types of exercise] help to burn calories during the workout, and they also give you that after-burn effect,” he says. “Plus, they help to change your body composition by increasing your muscle mass.”
Many people think that they can eat what they want if they take Lipitor. Lipitor doesn’t seem to take care of triglycerides. However, drop the junk foods, processed foods and stick with a plant based diet and you’ll see those triglyceride levels drop. So…. taking Lipitor but still eating whatever your sweet/ salty tooth desires, your triglycerides may still be high. Ouch!
Standing up, hold a medicine ball in both hands. Reaching the ball up overhead, extend your body as you reach your arms overhead. Then, slam the ball down as hard as you can, hinging over and sitting your butt back as you slam, following through with your arms. As you hinge over, bend your knees. Place your hands on the ground and jump back into a high plank position, keep your body in a straight line. Jump feet back in towards the hands so that you are squatting. Pick up the ball and reach overhead, extending your body and standing tall. Repeat.
Also, “demonising food groups”???. as far as I know Flour and sugar are not food groups. They might be part of one but sure as hell do not compriseone. The author never wrote she stayed away from carbs but simply stated what worked for her by staying away from sugar and flour. Many people have been successful at eliminating anti-inflammatory foods in their weight loss efforts. Bashing people’s personal experience in the efforts of conveying your own perception and information is not kind. You are not right and she is not wrong. We are all different.

About: The mantra “everything in moderation is pretty much exactly what Bertha is all about. Her blog provides creative ways to tweak your favorite recipes to make them healthier and with lower calories. What does that mean? You can still chow down on the things you love, but do it in a better way that gets you closer to reaching weight loss goals.
Thanks for sharing Brittany! I love your honesty and could not have used this post more today. I have been struggling with weight gain the last couple of years and keep falling into this loop hole of not eating clean. I work out 5 days a week, however my diet has not changed and so I have struggled. I will be definitely looking into this book as well to give me a new outlook and starting point. Kudos to you to maintaining a busy life of family, running a business and healthy lifestyle. I am inspired that if someone like you can make the change anyone can! Hugs
Women usually need fewer calories than men, especially as they age. That's because women naturally have less muscle, more body fat, and are usually smaller than men. On average, adult women need between 1,600 and 2,400 calories a day. As you age, you need to take in fewer calories to maintain the same weight. You can also keep your weight healthy by increasing how much physical activity you get.
Begin with your feet a few inches apart and your left foot placed on a glider (or, if you don’t have one, a towel.) Then put your weight on the right leg as you slowly bend and squat down, sliding your left foot to the side. Count to three on the way down and then slowly straighten your left leg, counting to three on the way back up. Repeat: Note that most of your weight will remain on the stable leg. Lagree recommends doing three sets of 10 reps on each side.
Carbs are not the enemy. Not whole-grain carbs, that is. People who ate three or more daily servings of whole grains (such as oats) had 10 percent less belly fat than people who ate the same amount of calories from processed white carbs (bread, rice, pasta), according to a Tufts University study. It’s theorized that this is due to whole grains’ high fiber and slow-burn properties, which keep you satiated longer.
Plus, a 2015 study from the Annals of Internal Medicine showed that for those who have a hard time following a strict diet, simplifying the weight loss approach by just increasing fiber intake can still lead to weight loss. Women should aim for at least 25 grams of fiber per day (based on a 2,000-calorie) diet, according to the most recent U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Not sure where to start? Check out our step-by-step guide to increasing your fiber intake.
As tons of Bulletproof success stories have shown, it’s actually easy to lose weight, regain normal hormone levels and control your appetite through Bulletproof Dieting. If you eat the higher amount of healthy fats recommended on the Bulletproof Diet, get your carbs mostly from nutrient-rich vegetables, and use Bulletproof Intermittent Fasting, then you’ll be doing your hunger-and-weight-control system a favor by dipping often into the fat-burning state of ketosis.
When Addison was not even one year old, I saw this commercial one day. I still remember it like it was yesterday. She was taking a nap and it came on the television. It was about this anxiety medicine that had begun to be linked to so many birth defects. It was a commercial for a law firm asking you to call this number if you had taken the medicine and gave birth to a child with a defect. I was in shock. It was the medicine that I had literally gotten off of two months before Addison was conceived. I cried and cried at the thought of what could’ve happened to Addie had I not “woken up” that day in January 2007.

About: Their blog may be described as just “another” runner, but it’s anything but. The blog is chock full of tips, advice, nutrition information — and lots of personalized posts — from “mothers” who banded together to run, and realized just how much they loved it. The blog also works as a personal cheerleader, a way to connect with moms and women who started running (grumbling), tolerated it, started to like it (there are moments) and ultimately fell in love (addiction level).
Lindsay, a registered dietitian and new mom, has a passion for nutrition and healthy living. She shares that passion on The Lean Green Bean. She provides healthy recipes, nutrition information, tips for new moms, and workout advice. Her focus is on balance: She’s all about helping you live a healthy lifestyle without feeling like you’re giving anything up. Visit the blog.
The fat-burning equation is simple: Protein builds muscle. More muscle = more fat burning. And fish is one of the healthiest sources of lean protein—especially wild salmon, says dietitian Lauren Minchen, MPH, RD, CDN. It’s also a rich source of anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids, which fuel fat burning, block fat storage and aid weight loss, she explains. But that’s not all: “Getting enough protein and healthy fat also helps to reduce cravings and has been shown to help keep weight off for longer,” adds Alissa Rumsey, MS, RD, CDN, CSCS.
Furthermore, when we studied 9 lean healthy young men and fed them first a ‘balanced diet’ for a week locked in a metabolic ward and then the exact same calories as a ketogenic diet for 4 weeks, they did not lose any body fat (only about 2 pounds of water) despite being consistently and strongly in nutritional ketosis. (Phinney 1983)  And finally, the 10 low carb runners from our FASTER Study had been following a low carb or ketogenic lifestyle for at least 6 months (average blood ketones of 0.6 mmol/L); but while thin, none of them were continuing to lose significant weight (Volek 2016).
We’re almost up to speed, but still rewind a little bit back to the early years of college. In the fall of 2012 I started school at Truman State University in good old Kirksville, Missouri. If you’re in college or have been to college, you know that it’s the time to form independence and truly make decisions, on your own, for how you wish to live your life. For a lot of people this means starting over, turning over a new leaf, making new habits, developing a new lifestyle, etc. Honestly college is crazy and weird and I don’t want to ramble on it too much because this post is focused more on the fitness/nutrition journey I’ve experienced (though I now realize its all connected.)
The South Beach Diet was developed by clinical cardiologist Dr. Arthur Agatston and puts some signature spin on a classic low-glycemic index diet. Developed for patients with heart health in mind, the diet seeks to eliminate spikes in blood sugar levels by removing most carbohydrates from your diet (refined flours, pasta, etc.). Once the body has eliminated spikes in blood sugar, complex carbohydrates are slowly reintroduced into your diet and you stay in this phase until you reach your target weight. By the end of the diet, you’re allowed to eat all foods in moderation—even sweets! Though this third phase of the diet recommends some precautions, they aren’t very intrusive on your everyday life.
Okay, we established that a calorie deficit is the easiest way to lose weight quickly, but we also need to talk about diet quality. Food still matters. And what you are actually eating can make sticking to your diet that much harder or easier. And some research even suggests the type of food you eat can help promote more weight loss. In a large, prospective cohort studies, fruits, vegetables, and nuts were associated with weight loss whereas processed meats, potato chips, fried foods, and desserts were associated with weight gain. 
If you follow the slim-fast program by the book it will work. There is no way out since the major meals are composed of slim-fast products that guarantee the amount of calories you consume. Now, there are both advantages and disadvantages to this approach. First it is costly because you will have to order all those slim-fast products and second there is a chance that you will get bored quickly and quit. On the other hand it is a perfect solution for the working woman who does not have the time to cook or organize her meals in advance. If you want a quick solution that is healthy and can generate good results then the slim-fast solution is for you.
FROM AROUND THE WEB A new blockchain product that rewards the crypto communityAd Oddup1, 2 & 3 Bed in Kanakpura Road from 38 lakhsAd PRESTIGE LAKE RIDGE BangaloreA severe lung disorder is threatening to kill my only childAd KETTOInvest in Kalyan, Greater Mumbai from 49 lakhsAd Birla VanyaBollywood celebrities who belong to royal families!Ad CRITICSUNIONBest NRI investment - Leased offices in India @ 9% yield.Ad Property ShareAshok will die without an urgent transplant, please save himAd KETTOInvest in Kalyan, Mumbai with Birla Group. Starting 49 lakhsAd Birla Vanya11 Pools With Epic ViewsAd Booking.com15 most beautiful women in the World!Ad KnowthiStuff10 reasons why NRI do not return back to India!Ad WIRAL GYANShe Was a Huge Star Before Her Plastic Surgery, Guess Who She Is!Ad Worldwidearticles
It is true that muscle is more metabolic than fat, but exactly how much more? One study suggests that the metabolic rate of muscle is about 4.5 to 7.0 calories a pound per day (97, 98). Compared to fat that supposedly burns only 1 to 3 calories a pound per day. This would mean an extra 5 pounds of muscle would equal an increase of 22 to 35 calories per day - which sounds small but could add up quickly over time.
The phrase “slow carb” is anything but sluggish when it comes to blasting fat. Slow carbs are digested slowly, which keeps you feeling fuller and energized longer—and sweet potatoes are one of them. Among the magic ingredients here are carotenoids, antioxidants which stabilize blood-sugar levels and lower insulin resistance, which helps your body efficiently convert calories to energy rather than stored as fat. And their high vitamin profile (including A, C, and B6) give you more energy to burn at the gym.

Everyone is different. How quickly you burn calories when you are not physically active can be very different from other people based on your specific genes, biology, and past. While scientists know that there are 3,500 calories in one pound, simply eating 500 fewer calories every day for a week (or 3,500 fewer calories in a week) does not always end in losing exactly one pound.
Also known as Branch Chain Amino Acids. BCAAs are three amino acids known as Leucine, Valine and Iso-Leucine. They help prevent muscle breakdown and can be bought as yummy flavoured powders to use in place as sports drinks. Drink them during your fat burning workout instead of water as they will help you tone up as you lose that belly and may even help in the formation of abdominal muscles.
Surprised? Although olive oil contains fat, it actually contains a type of healthy fat that has been found to decrease levels of fat-storing inflammation. According to a review published in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences, a polyphenol only found in unrefined extra virgin olive oil—oleocanthal—reduces inflammation in a similar way that ibuprofen does: it prevents the production of two pro-inflammatory enzymes, COX-1 and COX-2.
Agreed, the body slows down to balance the energy income and still preserve the “emergency reserves” (Fat) for a just in case situation. Fasting is used to reduce accumulated fat and this can only HAPPEN WHEN INSULIN IS BELOW A CERTAIN THRESHOLD, which only Fasting can achieve, at which stage it opens the doors (so to speak) to the body’s fat stores. This only happens 8 hours AFTER YOUR LAST MEAL – so you need 8 hours to clear the blood sugars at which stage the body opens the doors to Fat Burning, and then it is your own decision how many more hours you allow for Fat Burning. Yes, there probably is some Ketogenesis in this process but that is the way it works. I have a feeling that you may have overlooked the importance of INSULIN in the scheme of things, and that is why I was
Thank you. It’s easy to click through your blog looking at your gorgeous home, your perfect children and your beautiful skinny self. This is a wonderful reminder that we are all human! I have also lost 100 pounds and still have a way to go…. it was refreshing to be reminded not to take for granted that you know what struggles someone else has faced.

Consider reducing the volume of added fat to test the effect on your weight. Just be sure to notice any changes in hunger as you experiment. If you find yourself hungry, you’ve reduced your fat intake a bit too much. If your hunger remains unchanged, you’ve either found just the right amount or you can experiment with further reducing your fat intake.


About: Annamarie’s weight loss story is nothing to sneeze at. She lost a staggering 180 pounds, and she did it all naturally, by eating right and exercising. These days, Annamarie’s in two modes: maintain her healthy weight and lifestyle...and share her personal tips and victories along the way. She’s the kind of blog you’ll want to follow if you want to tap into the day-by-day challenges (and empowerment) of a young woman who made it happen...and wants you to as well.
When many people visualize weight loss, one of the first things to come to mind is getting a totally toned and taut tummy. After all, who doesn’t want to be able to slip into a pair of jeans without having to deal with a muffin to or have the option of flashing their flat abs in a two-piece swimsuit? What's more, losing fat around your middle is a surefire way to improve your health: Research links larger waist size to heart disease, diabetes, and even some cancers.
About: It’s difficult enough trying to get yourself on track to living healthy, but add in a family, and it can seem like the odds of success are astronomical. Enter Katie. As the mother of six, she has a lot of experience and a laundry list of tips and tricks busy moms and families can work together to achieve wellness. She sticks to real food, natural remedies and natural living in an effort to combat all the chemicals and pollution that could potentially hurt your family — and she does a darn good job of it.
While you may be tempted to eat as few calories as possible to lose weight more quickly, as mentioned above, it’s important that you don’t cut more than 1,000 calories from your daily diet or eat fewer than 1,200 calories a day — even if that means your energy deficit is smaller than 1,000 calories. Eat too little and you’ll slow down your metabolism and put yourself on track to regain the weight — often with a few extra pounds.
Take a look at your fluid intake and make sure you are accounting for any additional calories your adding to your day. Many beverages can be high in added sugar and low in nutrition, which adds empty calories and could throw off your macros balance. In addition, liquid calories tend to not activate your fullness cues the same way solid food does, and you may still feel hungry afterwards (67,68). Even further, sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit juices ins specific are associated with an increased risk of weight gain (69). 

As women age, weight creeps up too, with the average women gaining about one pound per year in their 40s and 50s, resulting in an added 10 to 15 pounds. The drop in estrogen levels during this time of perimenopause (the years leading up to menopause) contributes to weight gain and can change the way you distribute fat. You may gain weight in your belly more readily than you did in younger years.


"Sleep is a cornerstone of weight management because of the impact it has on your hormones that control how you burn fat, how you store fat, and how you're maintaining muscle. The better your hormone balance, the better your weight management. I work my butt off to get eight hours a night, but right now I'm at six—the show is murdering me! Even if I go to bed early my son wakes up."
You may think you're vigilant about watching what you eat, but research shows that stolen bites and tastes can rack up a few hundred uncounted calories, which can put on pounds fast. Eating while distracted can cause mindless eating, too. When women who normally watched their portions had lunch in different situations, they ate 15% more (72 additional calories) while listening to a detective story, compared with when they ate alone and free of any distractions, found a study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
Studies suggest that healthy behavior can be contagious and something as simple as just posting about running on your social media can influence your friends and followers to go for a run (93). But is it possible to have to much of a good thing? Can a constant overload of fitness pictures of ripped abs and physiques flooding your feed wreck your self esteem? 
(The main potentially-lethal drugs used by pro athletes are: Diuretics, insulin, mitochondrial OXPHOS uncouplers like DNP, EPO, amphetamines, painkillers such as vicodin, & growth hormone. Natural testosterone and, worse, DHT or over-the-counter testosterone precursors, can have unpleasant side-effects. Oral anabolic steroids stress the liver. Injectable anabolic steroids, by contrast, have never been demonstrated to be dangerous to healthy ADULT men in any study, never been implicated in a death, and may have health benefits because they are less toxic than the natural testosterone they displace. They ARE dangerous to high-school athletes as they disrupt normal growth. Simply having more muscle, however acquired, is life-shortening due to increased metabolic demands, mitochondrial oxidation, cardiovascular stress, and the down-regulation of FOXO-dependent repair pathways caused by muscle growth.)
You’re eating out of habit, stress, or emotions. It’s all too easy to grab food for reasons other than hunger–out of habit or by the clock, when stressed, when overcome with emotion (strong or subtle), or when we want to avoid something (including our emotions). The procrastination of going to the refrigerator rather than answering a work email or leaning into our emotions can take a bit of practice to break. Practice mindful eating (being aware and present when you are eating) to ensure you’re not eating out of habit, boredom, or emotions rather than hunger.
Last January, I started the year off training for a big kickass squat PR. 💪🏼⠀ ⠀ This year, my weights are lighter. My body looks and feels unfamiliar. My training is different, but I’m still thankful for the days I can move and feel strong. Something tells me the end result will be better than a squat PR. In fact, it’ll probably the best accomplishment of my life. 🤰🏻💗⠀ ⠀ #birthfit #babybuilding #movementislife #squats #fitpregnancy #secondtrimester

Also, while your menstrual cycle may not affect weight gain or loss, losing or gaining weight can affect your menstrual cycle. Women who lose too much weight or lose weight too quickly may stop having a period, or have irregular periods. Women who have obesity may also have irregular periods. A regular period is a sign of good health. Reaching a healthy weight can help women who have irregular periods to have cycles that are more regular. Learn more in our Menstrual Cycle section.
Support your weight loss and exercise program by getting between 1.2 and 1.6 grams of protein per kilogram (or 0.55 and 0.73 grams per pound) of your body weight, recommends research published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2013. For a 200-pound woman, this would suggest you aim for 110 to 146 grams of protein daily, split up among three to five meals.
Andie is a healthy recipe developer and New York Times best-selling author. She shares some of her most delectable food ideas on her blog. She’ll tell you right up front: She believes in balancing health and happiness. And it was through that balance that she lost 135 pounds — a journey that can also be found in her memoir, “It Was Me All Along.” Visit the blog.
Generally speaking, men tend to be heavier than women and have a higher percent lean mass - which grants them a higher resting metabolic rate and allows them to burn more calories during exercise. More muscle mass also means they are able to store carbs more efficiently (translation: they can store more carbs for quick energy over fat compared to women, due to their muscle mass). But this does not mean men burn calories more efficiently, it just takes more calories to fuel and move a larger mass. 
About: It’s difficult enough trying to get yourself on track to living healthy, but add in a family, and it can seem like the odds of success are astronomical. Enter Katie. As the mother of six, she has a lot of experience and a laundry list of tips and tricks busy moms and families can work together to achieve wellness. She sticks to real food, natural remedies and natural living in an effort to combat all the chemicals and pollution that could potentially hurt your family — and she does a darn good job of it.
But I've seen some women beat themselves up over a few extra pounds, even though this does little more than destroy their self-worth. Berating yourself will not help motivate you to control your weight and improve your health. So the next time those negative thoughts creep into your head, recognize them for what they are and replace them with positive ones.
Well done to you I am totally amazed at your will power (that you feel you don’t have) but believe me you definitely have something in there that you don’t give yourself enough credit for. I’d call it stamina. You did great to loose all the weight and make the decision to do it. You won a battle gazillions of people have given up on years ago. Well done. You should be very proud of yourself. This is a great inspirational and truthful piece.
Each slice of grapefruit you add to your salad acts like a match to spark your body’s fat-burning ability. A study published in the journal Metabolism found that those who ate grapefruit for six weeks lost a full inch off their waistlines. What’s behind the belt-tightening effect? The fruit is rich in phytochemicals, bioactive compounds that recent research shows stimulate the production of a hormone called adiponectin, which is involved in the breakdown of body fat. Japanese research suggests the smell of the juicy fruit can “turn on” calorie-burning brown fat cells, promoting the breakdown of body fat while reducing appetite.
Make leg presses a part of your workout and you’ll lose thigh fat and enjoy greater muscle definition in no time. Seated leg presses can help work your hamstrings, butt, quads, and calves, increasing your metabolism with every pound of muscle you build. Fortunately, you don’t have to add tons of weight to your routine to achieve serious results; research suggests that adding more reps with lighter weight is just as effective for weight loss and building muscle.
×