The Dukan diet is a ‘phase diet’ similar to Atkins and 17 day diet but it’s main idea is to take care of what you eat rather than the quantity of the food you eat.  For this purpose the diet has a long list of foods you are allowed to consume at each stage. It is not an open diet where you choose what to eat (provided that you are within a certain calorie range) but it is a ‘closed diet’ in the sense that you are given a list of the foods to eat. In brief the 4 stages of the Dukan Diet are:
Shelley started her blog on the same day she decided to start what she believes will be her final diet. That day, she weighed 256 pounds—two years later she lost over 110 pounds and was her lowest weight in over 20 years, 146 pounds! Shelley uses her blog as a way to remember all of her successes, failures, plateaus and everything else in between. She’s found tremendous support through the blogging community throughout her weight loss journey and continues to share it all on her blog.
This basically screws up your health and immune system in the long run to be sure. Hope the UFC organizers change the rules so that they have a weigh in just prior to the fight. This will stop all this weight loss manipulations mania and will ensure fairness in the system, so that desperate fighters willing to risk their long term health don’t get an edge over the normal guys who want to have a longer healthier life after all these fights are done.

Glad you started to work out! It took me to my mid 30’s before I started to workout! Now I do it at least 5 times a week! You feel so much better about yourself and your doing something good!! I’m glad you have a family that supports your healthy eating! Sometimes it can be hard when they don’t!!! Keep up all the great work and keep educating yourself on a healthy lifestyle!
You shouldn't feel the need to discard fruit all together just because of the carb content. Fruit tends to be be high in water and fiber, both of which have beneficial effects on satiety. In addition, fruit consumption has been inversely associated with weight in a number of studies, suggesting that fruit could be included as a part of a healthy, balanced diet for weight loss (52). Some studies even suggest that each type of fruit may offer different health benefits as well as different effects on weight loss (53). Fruit also works wonders as a healthy dessert substitute. 
Any weight loss that occurs because of these programs is almost always connected to a dramatic reduction in calories, not magical properties of the program itself. However, sudden and dramatic dietary changes can cause losses in muscle mass and general fatigue, as well as more serious complications such as disrupted gut bacteria, deficiencies in vital micronutrients, and even organ damage.[12]

Which one of these statements resembles your thigh desires? Do you have a mixture of a few? Depending on which of these is your main goal, you will be able to target the correct nutrition and fitness plan for the legs you want. That being said, however, keep in mind that there are many factors that affect the look of your legs, so make sure you are being realistic about the legs you want and the obstacles you may face. Here are some other factors to consider when formulating your thigh fat fitness plan:


According to an article on Live Strong, a study published in 2009 in Bioscience, Biotechnology & Biochemistry showed that drinking a daily dose of apple cider vinegar led to a lower waist circumference, abdominal fat mass , and body weight [2]. Apple cider vinegar also contains a compound, which is called acetic acid. This acid may stimulate the ability to burn stomach fat of your body and inhibit the fat storage. You may mix apple cider vinegar with ginger or honey to get the best results in burning fat in your body.

Experts typically recommend reducing your daily intake by about 300-500 calories per day below "maintenance level," or the amount you need to stay at your current weight. This decrease in calories converts to about 1/2 pound to a pound of weight loss per week. Although you may feel like you can "do more," slow, steady progress is much healthier—and easier to keep up.
An aerobic exercise routine can help you lose inner-thigh fat by burning away fat calories. The CDC recommends a minimum of 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic exercise or 150 minutes or moderate aerobic exercise each week for adults. Brisk walking, taking the stairs and raking leaves are some examples of moderate aerobic exercise. Vigorous aerobic activities include exercises like swimming, running and jumping rope. To start losing fat, you'll likely need to exceed the minimum recommendations.
About: Yes, it’s true Julie is not exactly a “new” blogger (she’s been doing it since 2011). But when you look at her blog, it’s easy to see why we added her here — she’s got the same caliber as the big guns, and deserves even more recognition than she’s already had. Julie decided some time back that she was going to make better decisions when it came to her health, but progress with weight loss, as she puts it, has been “S-L-O-W.” Determined and just happier with the way she feels, Julie carried on until she reached her goal weight. Today, she hovers between 150 and 170 pounds, blogging about what she eats, what inspires her and how she hopes to inspire others, too.

Fiber expands in your stomach and also takes time to digest, both of which help keep you feeling full for longer. Good sources include whole grains, veggies, and whole fruit (not juiced). Healthy fats like olive and nut oils—in moderation—improve flavor, give you energy, and help your body use certain nutrients. Alexandra Shipper added healthy fats, such as avocado, to protein sources like eggs and fish on her way to dropping 55 pounds.
About: Dustin spent much of his life being “slightly overweight,” never obese, but enough so that he wasn’t super comfortable in his own skin. But one day he decided to start exercising — lifting weights, crossfit and similar workouts, and slowly but surely, his body began to see the results he’d hoped. His interest in food also grew. He always liked meats, but decided to expand into baking too. These days, he’s packing his blog with clever twists on recipes — always making sure they’re nutritious and delicious — as well as fitness routines and updates on his progress. He’s just the guy if you want to take it nice and easy to lose weight.
Joe is cutting 445 calories per day and will lose a little less than one pound per week from diet alone. (2,970 TDEE - 2,525 calories for sustainable weight loss = 445 calories cut per day). Joe is doing well on his diet and decides to add 30 minutes of moderate exercise daily, with a calorie burn of 300 calories. His new workout routine would increase his calorie deficit to 745 calories per day, which would equal about one and a half pounds of lost per week. At this rate, Joe can expect to lose 25 pounds and reach his goal weight in a little over 4 months.

If you want to shrink your gut, get enough protein in your diet. In this case, about 25 percent of calories. Why? For starters, protein makes you feel full and helps you build muscle (which increases metabolism, thereby making it easier to lose weight). Just as important, high-protein diets have been shown to be the best way of attacking belly fat. In one study, published in the International Journal of Obesity, Danish researchers put 65 people on either a 12 percent protein diet or a 25 percent protein diet. The low-protein dieters lost an average of 11 pounds, which isn't bad. But the high-protein subjects lost an average of 20 pounds--including twice as much abdominal fat as the low-protein group.


Well done to you I am totally amazed at your will power (that you feel you don’t have) but believe me you definitely have something in there that you don’t give yourself enough credit for. I’d call it stamina. You did great to loose all the weight and make the decision to do it. You won a battle gazillions of people have given up on years ago. Well done. You should be very proud of yourself. This is a great inspirational and truthful piece.
From January through May, it looked very similar to previous months and years. With my little spurts of doing okay and thinking about my choices more, I maybe lost a few pounds in the semester, but nothing that made me look or feel different. It was when I graduated college in May of 2016 that I recommitted to a healthy lifestyle, specifically nutrition and fitness. I was all in.

Whether it’s turning off fat genes, helping to build muscle that robs energy from adipose cells, revving your metabolism and ability to burn fat, or helping you feel fuller longer so you consume fewer calories, these foods have been proven to show an increased rate of fat loss. So stop these bad habits that give you belly fat, and instead, incorporate these healthy fat burning foods into your diet to whittle your waist and bring your midriff back in line.

First, eliminate or seriously cut back on the fake foods. When possible, choose real foods instead. Among weight loss tips, this one is absolutely essential. That means an apple instead of apple juice, orange slices instead of something orange-flavored. If you’re craving something, skip the no-fat version that will likely leave you wanting more, and instead measure out a serving instead so you can enjoy the food without going nuts.


If you want to work late at night, think again. When your biorhythms are off, you end up eating more. When you're tired you produce more ghrelin, which triggers cravings for sugar and other fat-building foods. Losing sleep can also alter your hormone production, affecting your cortisol levels that cause insulin sensitivity, prime reasons for belly fat! Getting about 7 hours of sleep a night is one of the best things you can do for your body shaping goals.
You know that recording what you consume is a good way to keep your weight in check, but Brittany Hicks, who dropped 110 pounds in college, didn't only write down what she ate—she also wrote down why she was eating it. "I realized I'd been using food to cope with stress," she says. "Just noticing that helped me do it less." Make sure you're not making these food journal mistakes so you can reap the rewards of eating and jotting, too.
There’s a reason everyone harps on about protein: Not only does it help keep you full, but it’s also responsible for repairing the tiny tears caused by strength training in your muscles. This helps them grow bigger and stronger, nudging out body fat in the process. As a general rule of thumb, aim to get at least 70 grams of protein throughout the day, says Dr. Cheskin. (These high-protein foods can help you reach that goal.)
Well, there is plenty of research suggesting low-carb diets may be more beneficial than low fat, but there are also large, high-quality studies implying no difference between the two. The truth is, we don't know for sure. But what we can takeaway from the science is that everyone is a little different when it comes to dietary approaches and what works well for some may not work for all. We are in need of more individual approaches to dieting and more research looking at what variables we should be guided by.   

Although I am not tiny or super duper in shape, I feel that I am finally at a comfortable and healthy weight that I can maintain while being busy and always on the go. My routine over the last year has been to try and eat fairly healthy during the week and then cheat a little on the weekends. If I splurge at one meal, I try and drink a healthy shake or a plate of veggies at the next to “make up for” the last meal. As I said before this is NOT health advice, just how I maintain my weight without counting every calorie. I am  not one of those people with a crazy metabolism who can eat whatever they want so I have to be conscious about it all the time. Boo to any of you who are that way. I am forever jealous. One thing that has really helped me to start losing some again recently has been an alkaline diet. I honestly FEEL so much better too!


If you tend to carry weight around your waist, you're not alone — it's one of the most stubborn areas to lose weight! Aside from revealing your amazing six-pack, having a lean, flat belly is also good for your health since visceral fat around your organs can lead to disease. If you want to lose your belly fat and keep it off, here's what you need to do.

It is great to find articles like yours. For the last 6 months I have been exercising and eating healthier thanks to a great nutritionist and an amazing hypnotist http://www.tryhypnosisnow.comin New York. The first month I lost 12 lbs, probably because my body was used to such unhealthy food. Thereafter I have lost an average of 6 lbs per month. I am very close to my goal weight and my next test will be to see how I maintain my healthy weight. Wish me luck!


About: Sanji started her blog in 2009 as a personal journey to discover what adventures life would bring her, including religion, dating, traveling and more. Fast forward 7 years later, and Sanji is married and has a child. Recently, she morphed her blog into a place to share about her weight loss journey and efforts to live healthy. Add in her long-time writing experience and willingness to get vulnerable, and you’re sure to find it’s a journey you can relate to and find inspiration.
What a great article. Are you sure you weren’t writing about me? (LOL) But your 12 tips are fantastic. One of the biggest challenges I found was not starting a weight loss program, but sticking with it! Oh just this once I can have that donut or slice of cake, etc. One piece isn’t going to hurt right? Your article was not only very, very, helpful and informative, but also inspiring. Thank you for pointing out that you CAN achieve your goals! Thanks for a really great post, I enjoyed reading it!
I had the pleasure of meeting (and rooming with!) Beth at FitBloggin'. In person, she is just as sweet, down-to-earth, and motivated as she seems on her blog, which she launched to document her weight-loss progress online. Beth also shares what she’s learned along the way, including healthy recipes she creates at home. In two years, Beth has dropped 90 pounds, reached her goal weight, and run two half-marathons, among other road races.
21. Keep it simple. "I take a minimalist approach to nutrition: My diet consists of lean protein (chicken breast, egg whites, ground turkey), complex carbs (quinoa, sweet potatoes, oatmeal), healthy fats (coconut oil, almonds, avocados), and leafy green veggies. I eat as clean as I can—locally-grown vegetables, organic when possible, and minimally-processed everything."
Then, there’s biochemistry. In women, ghrelin — the “I’m hungry” hormone — spikes after a workout, while leptin — which tells the brain ‘I’m full!’ — plummets, according to a 2009 study in the American Journal of Physiology — Regulatory, Integral and Comparable Physiology. Not so in men. So post-workout, women tend to eat more, which puts them at risk to gain weight. Men don’t experience this same hormonal fluctuation.
If you want to lose weight, you need to burn more calories than you take in. Simple as that. Heart-pumping cardio is a great way to up your calorie burn, and many forms of cardiovascular exercise also focus on toning the legs simultaneously: think running, cycling, or jumping rope. If you’re only doing a few light cardio workouts per week, increase that number to burn more calories. The CDC recommends 2 hours and 30 minutes of heart-pumping cardiovascular exercise per week. You should also be mixing up your workouts by incorporating High Intensity Interval Training, which helps burn fat fast and has you doing calorie-torching plyometrics, in addition to strength training, which will get into in a little bit for its metabolism-boosting benefits!
Thanks for great contribution to a great article! When i read about this article i got very enthusiastic and impressed and found out i got to try it. So this is my 3 day. Day 1 i weighed in at 79.5 kg. Today (day 3, morning) am weighing 78.3 kg. My diet consist of chicken fillets 3 times a day with chilli and pepper and a bit of lemon juice. I have obviously followed the instructions down to a tee, and not sheeted along the way. My question is:why do i only marginally loose weight? By this point the guy in the article had lost quite a bit. What am i doing wrong?

This story was beyond relatable, it brought me to tears. I’m lying in bed as I write this. I had a miscarriage and had my D and C surgery this morning. I was on anxiety pills for a little over a year and when i found out I was pregnant with my third baby I decided to quit taking them. My OBGYN said the same thing yours did, but something inside of me urged me to quit taking them. I am at 180 pounds today. This is the heaviest i have ever been in my life. I’m turning a new page in my life. Although I have lost my baby, I’m so grateful to finally be off the antidepressants. This miscarriage was a wake up call for me. I look in the mirror and don’t even know who I am anymore. Your story has inspired me. I want to go back to being thinnish (I’m so stealing your so stealing your word “thinnish”!!). Thank you so much for sharing this.


This is a top quality protein source that lowers body fat and leads to maintenance of muscle mass. High quality protein is perfect for supporting weight because it contains amino acid leucine. This amino acid cuts down the calories and builds muscles. If compared to fats or carbs, proteins promote greater satiety. It helps in cravings as well. Protein is perfect for reducing cravings and improving the desire for snacks. Increasing protein intake has been a process for the ability to reduce cravings drastically and snacking at night. Protein has thermogenic properties which burn calories the food contains during the digestion.
My body went through a slow weight gain throughout the years and because it was so slow, I didn’t really notice too much, or really, I noticed once it had already happened and the weight was there. I remember the times getting frustrated in dressing rooms, when older clothes didn’t fit, feeling terrible in my body, and the comparison of feeling like there were so many people around me that ate more unhealthy foods than me and exercised less that were somehow still so much smaller than I was. I thought that my body would stay the way it looked forever, no matter how hard I tried to change it. I wondered if I would ever accept how my body looked or be comfortable in it. For all of the years building up to this one, I was not quite hopeless, but always a little let-down in myself, specifically the choices I made, the way I felt, and the way I looked. I didn’t feel the best in my body and wanted peace.
We tend to accumulate a lot of fat when we overwork our body or mind. Proper rest is highly recommended for women who want to lose thigh fat or weight in general. Less than 7 hours of sleep can make you gain weight (3). Also, if you have been exercising, your body needs to burn fat and build muscles. Muscle building takes place when you sleep and not when you are working out. So, ladies, get a good night sleep.
Fitness and nutrition were my two focus areas, and I completed some sort of action for them each day. Fitness each day looked different, but it was usually an hour of busting my butt. If you’re a list person, this is a tangible action that can be “checked off your list.” In my opinion, nutrition is not as concrete. Again, if you’re a list person, it’s a little difficult because either you write things like “eat balanced, nutritious breakfast” or “don’t eat sweets” or whatever. It also lasts all day long instead of one hour. This category leaves a lot of room for improvement.
#11 – Most importantly, set a goal and try to achieve it!  Don’t give up, even if you mess up for a day or two.  Just get back on that horse and keep going.  Along that note, you need to reward yourself!  If you reach a mini goal, then treat yourself to a pair of jeans, or something you desire.  I bought clothes at every 5lbs loss.  A little crazy, but it worked and I felt great!!
If weight loss is one of your health goals, it may be wise to take a closer look at what you’re eating by using the food logging feature in the Fitbit app. Experts agree, the simple act of recording meals and snacks can not only help you lose more weight, but keep it off for longer, too. Yes, all that logging can feel tedious at times, but it works! By spending a few days spotting where those extra calories are sneaking in, you’ll gain invaluable insights.
Whether you’re adding it to your smoothie or having it as the perfect post-workout recovery fuel, Greek yogurt will help you build muscle. This creamy snack is brimming with muscle-building protein—about 20 grams in a 7-ounce cup. It has the one-two punch of vitamin D and calcium, which turn off cortisol, a stress hormone that causes the body to hang on to belly fat. Don’t believe us? Take it from the researchers at the University of Tennessee who found that people who ate 18 ounces of Greek yogurt a day lost 22 percent more weight and 81 percent more belly fat than those who didn’t.
As my body changed, people started to notice. The encouragement and positive talk from friends and family was helpful, except for when people would say things like, “wow you look so great now!” Now. It didn’t quite sit right to hear that some people thought I looked a lot better now, but that I didn’t look as great before. It was important to remind myself that I looked great no matter what. More important than what other people think about my looks, I needed to accept and love myself and my body, even if my body never changed. I didn’t set out on the weight loss journey to have other people change their minds about how I looked; I started the journey to create a healthy body, healthy mind, and overall wellness.
Tip #2 Learn the shortcuts. The fastest way to log is to simply use the plus button at the bottom of your dashboard and select “log food” or “scan barcode.” (iOS users on newer devices with force touch can do a hard press on the Fitbit app icon and then click on log food.) By tapping the barcode symbol you can then use the camera on your smartphone to capture the barcode, and voilà! That exact item should pop up. All you need to do is select your serving size. (Note: This doesn’t mean you need to survive on packaged foods! Lots of fresh produce comes with barcodes, too!) You can also make use of “most popular” and “common” foods when searching for a food item, it’ll save you time trawling through a long list of brands.
Plus, a 2015 study from the Annals of Internal Medicine showed that for those who have a hard time following a strict diet, simplifying the weight loss approach by just increasing fiber intake can still lead to weight loss. Women should aim for at least 25 grams of fiber per day (based on a 2,000-calorie) diet, according to the most recent U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Not sure where to start? Check out our step-by-step guide to increasing your fiber intake.
That’s because women tend to store more temporary fat in their bellies. “The fat stores are gained and lost,” says Lawrence Cheskin, MD, chair of the department of nutrition and food studies at George Mason University and director of the Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center. “By and large, belly fat comes off easier in the sense that it comes off first. That’s where a good amount of the fat is lost from.”
And then there is the controversial NuSi study* (Hall, 2016).  This involved 17 individuals confined for 2 months in a metabolic ward and fed two different diets containing identical energy contents but differing in carbohydrate contents – one ‘balanced’ and one ketogenic.  After 4 weeks of adaptation to each diet, the subjects had their metabolic rates monitored by two different methods:  one using isotope analysis over the last 10 days and the other with continuous indirect calorimetry in a chamber for 24-hrs.  The average chamber energy expenditure over 24-hrs was 75 kcal/day greater during the ketogenic diet.  Given that the average subject in this study was consuming about 3000 kcal/day, that translates to about a 2% difference.  Using the different isotopic method to assess average metabolic rate over the last 10 days of each 4-week study period, the calculated increase in daily energy expenditure on the ketogenic diet was closer to 150 kcal (i.e., 4%).

A little garlic in your meals could mean a lot less weight around your middle. The results of a Korean study found that mice given a high-fat diet supplemented with garlic lost significantly more weight and abdominal fat than those who just ate fatty foods. Even better, they also improved their liver health, making it easier to stay healthy and burn off that excess fat in the long term. For more flavorful ways to make your food more enjoyable, turn to the 20 Spicy Recipes That Fire Up Your Metabolism and watch those pounds melt away.


Not only is belly fat ugly and discomforting, it is also seriously harmful for the body. Also known as visceral fat, belly fat can increase risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Research shows that people who are otherwise thin and have fat on the belly too are increasingly prone to such risks and hence losing belly fat is more essential than it sounds. And along with being essential, losing belly fat is also extremely difficult.
This is high in fiber and heart healthy monounsaturated fats that keep you satiated. Monosaturated fats like Oleic acid help the utilization of the body as a slow burning energy source. Avocados contain 11 to 17 grams of fiber, making them the idea addition to dishes or best even if taken alone. These foods improve the extraction of nutrients from other foods. This ensures insulin sensitivity remains within healthy levels and glycemic control is a factor in gaining weight and combating diabetes. These reduce bad cholesterol and raise HDL or good cholesterol levels.
Shelly of the World According to Eggface is remarkable for her 158-lb weight loss, which took her from morbidly obese to healthy and happy. But she's even more inspirational for being so open about something a lot of weight-loss bloggers tiptoe around: her gastric bypass surgery. Check out her A Day in My Pouch post to see what it's like eating after this type of weight-loss surgery.
Thanks for the very informative post! I can see using this method (or one very similar to this) for bodybuilders who are preparing for a competition or a show. The good part about it for the bodybuilders is that they are not actually trying to retain their strength, only their size and aesthetic physique. Also, there is no need to rush to gain back the weight the day after the show, that can be a more gradual process (which could be healthier). This would help them look a bit more cut & defined, that is if the 3-5% bodyfat doesn’t already make them look that way…
Women accumulate fat in different areas of the body. For most it is in the stomach area, for others it is the thighs while for a few the fat sits on the arms. Whichever is your trouble area, the secret to losing weight lies in strengthening and toning the core muscles in that area. If you want to lose weight in the stomach area or on the thighs, there are 10 weight loss tricks that can make it easier for you.

There’s a reason everyone harps on about protein: Not only does it help keep you full, but it’s also responsible for repairing the tiny tears caused by strength training in your muscles. This helps them grow bigger and stronger, nudging out body fat in the process. As a general rule of thumb, aim to get at least 70 grams of protein throughout the day, says Dr. Cheskin. (These high-protein foods can help you reach that goal.)


Perhaps you might be consuming too much fat because you’re trying to raise your ketones, but pump the brakes! In addition to potentially contributing too many calories, sources of fat like coconut oil (including concentrated supplements) contain medium chain triglycerides (MCT). These cannot be stored in body fat, meaning that whatever is consumed has to be promptly burned for energy. So you’re adding these sources on top of your dietary fat consumption for satiety, this type of fat takes priority. Often times people fall into the trap of adding supplements of coconut oil or straight up MCT oil and it ends up adding extra calories. Yes, it may raise your ketones a bit, but the overall cost may impact your weight loss.

Some of the most well known marine veggies are nori, wakame, kombu, hijiki and arame. With Omega 3 fatty acids, sea veggies are perfect for combating inflammation. This is a potent means of fighting inflammation so that the body can prevent inflammation and flatten the belly. So remember to buy these fresh and organic rather than processed and filled with sodium.
Eating a large amount of protein will leave you feeling full, thus decreasing your appetite. Protein also has the unique ability to boost metabolism by helping maintain and even build muscle mass. There has been some correlation between high protein diets and a reduction in belly fat. The best way to ensure you are getting enough protein is to eat a little at every meal. A general rule of thumb for high protein intake is to get around 1 gram of protein for every pound of bodyweight. For example, a 130 pound person would aim to get 130 grams of protein each day. Excellent sources of protein come from lean meats, eggs, nuts, etc.

About Blog Red Mountain Weight Loss is the leader in Medical Weight Loss, providing expert care under the direction of our Bariatric Physicians. Recently revealed the newest revolution in the weight loss by red mountain weight loss, healthy lifestyle than ever before with medical weight loss in phoenix Health experts offer their service and daytime talk show.

According to an article on Live Strong, a study published in 2009 in Bioscience, Biotechnology & Biochemistry showed that drinking a daily dose of apple cider vinegar led to a lower waist circumference, abdominal fat mass , and body weight [2]. Apple cider vinegar also contains a compound, which is called acetic acid. This acid may stimulate the ability to burn stomach fat of your body and inhibit the fat storage. You may mix apple cider vinegar with ginger or honey to get the best results in burning fat in your body.
Switching from carbs to ketones does not happen overnight – it takes weeks of consistently restricting carbs for this process of keto-adaptation to fully occur.   But once this process is complete, the body can burn fat at over twice the rate compared to when carbs were a major component of the diet (Phinney 1983, Volek 2016).  And this remains true even when comparing highly trained athletes, where we have shown that high-level endurance training in the context of a high carbohydrate diet cannot come close to matching keto-adaptation in giving the body permission to burn fat.
Drink a cup of tea or a glass of water 30 minutes before you eat a meal. This will trick your body into believing it's more full than it actually is, meaning that your cravings will be lower and you'll be inclined to eat less during a meal. If you drink water or other liquid right before you eat, this could lead to indigestion, so wait a while after drinking before eating.
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