Happy Valentine's Day! ❤️ Feeling sassy in my favorite recent purchase, this @eloquii jacket. Layered over a $22 dress! See the full outfit (the shoes 😍) at link in bio. Shop your screenshot of this pic with the LIKEtoKNOW.it app http://liketk.it/2uEoE #liketkit @liketoknow.it #LTKcurves #xoq #ootd #psootd #louisvilleblogger #celebratemysize #plusmodelmag #stylebeyond22 #the24plus
You know not to crush half a pizza before jumping in bed, but even munching on something healthy-ish at night can throw off your calorie-burning momentum. Ideally, while you're sleeping, you want your body to burn its current fat storages (read: that pesky middle-jiggle) for fuel as opposed to whatever you ate as a midnight snack. Make sure to fill up at dinner every night, and then banish yourself from the kitchen at least two hours before bed.
I have a fight next Saturday June 15th. Im currently 178 this morning, I need to weigh 170 Saturday at 5pm and expect to fight around 8pm. I know I shouldnt cut a lot of water but dont want to train extremely hard this week as im trying to recover as it is. I plan to do my regular training Monday and Tuesday and take off the rest of the week to rest. I started at 192 pounds and have lost them in the last few weeks naturally but have seemed to hit a plateau. What protocol would you suggest I use doc.
Fiber is an indigestible carbohydrate from plant-based foods like bran flakes and strawberries that absorbs water and helps us eliminate waste as it travels through the digestive system. According to a review published in Journal of American College of Nutrition, fiber may increase satiety to keep you fuller longer and dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. Mayo Clinic recommends that women should aim for at least 21 to 25 g of fiber a day, while men should aim for 30 to 38 g a day.

You say tomato, I say 9-oxo-ODA. That’s the name of a compound found in the brilliant red fruits that Japanese researchers recently discovered can effectively activate your DNA to burn more fat. Tomatoes are also brimming in beta-carotene and lycopene, two potent antioxidants that mop up harmful compounds that promote fat storage. One Journal of Nutrition study found people whose diets contained the most beta-carotene and lycopene had the smallest waists and the least belly fat. And at only 5 calories apiece, grab a few sun-dried tomatoes! Cooked tomatoes contain more bioavailable lycopene than raw tomatoes, according to Cornell University researchers.


That’s because it theoretically causes a mild ketosis (yep, the basis of the keto diet), which is a fat-burning state that should make you feel less hungry. The key in being successful with a low-carb diet (especially if you’re used to a more high-carb lifestyle) is to compensate for those lost carbs with protein-rich foods, says Dr. Cheskin. That way, your volume of food stays the same, but you’re doing it healthfully rather than in a way that exacerbates your weight gain.
Well, we’re not going to encourage you to obsess about a thigh gap, but your thighs do an important job and for that reason, it’s great to have them toned and strong. When you’re told to “Lift with your legs!” your thighs bear the brunt of the effort. When you scoop up a child or climb stairs, even when you’re just walking, your thighs are hard at work.
These include insoluble fiber and some carbs that cut down on hunger. This gives strength for a stronger, healthier body and a better workout. Reduce the fat content in your body by opting for healthy oats. Choosing a bowl of oats with low fat milks the best option. Choose flavorless oats. Flavored ones are rich in artificial preservatives and contain a lot of sugar, adding to the calorific value.
Carbs, rich proteins, and fatty foods serve as catalysts for producing energy to perform multiple functions. Excess fat is stored in the cells of the body. When it comes to fatty foods, the adipose cells run out of space to store the fat and place them in the linings of the muscle instead. These can be found in the chest, waist and hip area. Eventually, you end up with belly flab. Losing additional fat from the areas of the body which are tough to slim down is the largest concern. Before exercising, proper diet is required to reduce belly fat. Diet and exercise combination burns more calorie than is consumed. Most people resort to fatty foods and fast food items. But if your waistline matters to you, you need to give up on high-calorie fast foods. Additionally, you need to eat foods that burn belly fat. Here are your best options.
I was doing so well, getting into a routine again and eating well, and then HURRICANE MICHAEL. I had to eat fast food (no fresh fruit and vegs) for almost a month. I just got my Instant Pot, and was able to buy fresh veggies and fruit again…I didn’t realize how much I’d miss them!! I’ve always loved fresh fruit and veggies (except avocados, mushrooms, cauliflower and strawberries and blueberries). But, I also love potatoes, rice, bread, chips – anything salty.
The female body is naturally slightly less insulin sensitive when progesterone levels are higher in the luteal phase (after ovulation, in the last two weeks of the cycle). This means it does not tolerate carbohydrate as well in these weeks. Women who are diabetic know this well. I’ve read many studies and heard from many women I know that their insulin injections have to increase in the second half of their cycle because their blood sugar levels are inordinately high.
I want to say congratulations to you!!! It’s hard getting up at 5am to workout and you do it! That is fantastic!! Love that you changed your lifestyle, as you know I did the same thing. I feel so much better about myself and I imagine you do too! Thank you again for taking the time to leave a comment. It’s comments like yours that keeps me staying healthy!!
Another food in the list of top 24 foods that burn belly fat is chilled potato. Chilled potato is very useful for burning belly fat. If you keep potato in the refrigerator for overnight, it will form a resistant starch crystal. This is a constituent of fiber that stimulates the two hormones production halting hunger. In addition, this resistant starch crystal can help your body in burning more fat and making the fat cells not available. If you do not like using chilled potato directly on your belly, you can eat them in a vinegar potato salad form.
Of course, you want to get to the bottom of why you’re not feeling so hot. One study found that practicing relaxation techniques helped obese women who were emotional eaters lose weight over the course of three months, along with helping them reduce depression and anxiety. (7) Engaging in other activities that can help you relax are a better option than emotional eating.
I’m not a big milk chocolate fan, and I do love dark chocolate the best. I made different kind of chocolates and things for my family. My family and I eat so different, that I try to incorporates everyone’s taste buds. 🙂 Your right, moderation of anything and you can still lose weight. That took me a long time to learn that. It’s nice to know you can eat more than carrots and celery! Thank you so much Susan for the kind words!
I gather that by consuming copious amounts of water, you decrease the concentration of sodium in the cells and plasma, which decreases anti-dieuretic hormone activity, which enhances pissing (correct me if I’m wrong). Is osmolality the regulated variable here??? If so, would it not fall to within normal ranges after the excess water is pissed out, thereby reducing diuresis? If there is further pissing, there must be some residual effect of ADH, or perhaps some other explanation? Any idea of how much water is actually lost through this residual process?
The slang term thunder thighs is used to describe excess weight on the top of the legs. This bodily feature not only causes feelings of self-consciousness but also is unhealthy. Joining a gym is a good strategy to reduce your thigh size, provided you know what approach to take. Being that you cannot spot reduce, overall weight loss needs to be your primary goal.
Sit up tall on the floor with your knees bent and feet off the ground. You can use a medicine ball or hold a weighted plate with your hands at chest height. Lean backward with a long, tall spine, holding your torso at a 45-degree angle and keeping your arms a few inches away from your chest. From here, turn your torso to the right, pause and squeeze your core muscles, then turn your torso fully to the left, and pause and squeeze your ab muscles. That’s one rep. Continue alternating sides and twisting for a total of 20 reps. Then rest for 30 seconds and repeat the movement for 30 reps. Rest for one minute and complete a third set for 40 reps.
Fast forward several years later, I had another baby (Winter) and came out of that pregnancy about 40-50 lbs over my end goal weight. I had always had this dream to finally hit the big “100” in weight loss. By 2013 I had begun to take some classes at the gym and count calories a little more but I in NO WAY did anything extreme. And I honestly believe that is the key to weight loss and to keeping it off. It was NO quick journey to that final number but by July 2013, I hit 120 lbs and had officially lost 100 lbs…

Water is calorie free and will help fill your stomach and keep you hydrated. In fact, hunger can often be a sign of early dehydration, since your body is using up glycogen stores more quickly, and drinking water could help calm your appetite if this is the case (70). Water also plays multiple roles in the body including supporting digestion, nutrient absorption, and aiding in bodily functions. 
You're gaining water weight. Have you been eating a lot of sodium, increasing your strength training, or perhaps it is that time of the month? Water retention could be one reason why you are gaining weight. Training hard can cause your muscles to swell, partially due to water uptake - this is a normal part of recovery and also a sign you are getting stronger! Eating a high salt diet and hormonal changes can also cause you to hold on to more water. But have no fear, this type of weight gain is different than fat and it's not permanent. To help shed some water weight, consider eating more protein and less carbohydrates and sugar, decreasing your sodium intake and increasing your potassium intake, and staying well hydrated with water. 
Do you even lift, bro? If you’re serious about getting rid of that belly fat fast, resistance training might just be the key. A study from the Harvard School of Public Health found that adding weight training to adult male test subjects’ workouts significantly reduced their risk of abdominal obesity over a multi-year study period, although doing the same amount of cardio had no such effect. Research from the University of Maryland even found that just 16 weeks of weight training boosted study participants’ metabolic rates by a whopping 7.7 percent, making it easier to ditch those extra inches around your middle.
We tend to accumulate a lot of fat when we overwork our body or mind. Proper rest is highly recommended for women who want to lose thigh fat or weight in general. Less than 7 hours of sleep can make you gain weight (3). Also, if you have been exercising, your body needs to burn fat and build muscles. Muscle building takes place when you sleep and not when you are working out. So, ladies, get a good night sleep.
While calorie needs can vary drastically from one person to the next, most dieters should strive to keep their intake above 1200 calories per day for women and 1500 calories per day for men. This amount will ensure adequate energy for bodily functions like brain, heart, lungs, etc. Eating less than these amounts or cutting more than 25% of your current calorie intake may cause your calorie output to slow.
Although you do want to increase your walking over time, this doesn’t necessarily mean that you have to be working your way up to a more intensive form of cardio like swimming or running. “Moving on to new exercises is not something someone should feel they have to do unless their goals change and a new exercise is needed to support those goals,” says Gagliardi. “Walking alone can be progressed by changing the distance, speed, terrain, and by adding intervals.”
About: If we had to sum up Helen’s blog in two words, they would be “creative” and “hilarious.” Because that’s exactly what the blog is...a blend of Helen’s witty writing combined with her pursuit of all things new in the dieting, fitness and weight loss realm — be they inspirational or out in left-field … and everything in between. Helen, a once “healthy living” blogger who gave it up years ago and then recently returned to the world with a new theme — is obsessed with what’s “new,” and she’s the queen of trying it out and letting her readers know if it worked well, or if it didn’t work at all. And that whole “new” theme doesn’t just mean trends...she also loves helping people who are new to weight loss and healthy living succeed.
About: Britni’s been blogging for years, but only in the past couple did she start on a journey to lose weight in a unique way — by working towards getting her personal training certification (and blogging, of course!). She’s a hardcore lover of food and fitness, and she’s also dedicated to making sure other young mothers like herself are given the tools they need to shed pounds and maintain a healthy lifestyle.

If you are on the birth control pill, it depends on which one. Some pills are just progesterone. if that’s the case then your insulin sensitivity may be a BIT hampered. If you have a progesterone/estrogen combination pill then its a bit less easy to tell how you may be experiencing hormone fluctuations and which is more dominant in you. If they are well balanced then I wouldn’t worry too much about taking care of them and would consider cycling the ‘normal’ way
Perform cardio on most days of the week to achieve weight loss. Using a machine for a few minutes every now and then will not do much in the way of thigh reduction. You must be willing to exercise long enough and often enough to promote weight loss. The Centers for Disease Control recommends at least 30 minutes a day of moderately-intense aerobic exercise. Meet these guidelines for the best results.
As an exercise physiologist, life coach, personal trainer and group fitness instructor for many years I have promoted these ideas and they work. Not only does this approach effectively result in a sustainable weight loss, it promotes good health in general. At age 73 I have had bypass surgery and lived many years with advanced prostate cancer. Walking the walk has kept me fit and healthy regardless of my diseases. I test in the excellent percentile in ACSM fitness tests for my age, actually in the good percentile for 50 year old men. Remember that the three pillars of good health are: routine exercise, healthy diet and positive attitude.
Aerobic exercise is a key component when it comes to shedding excess belly fat. Honestly, it doesn’t matter as much whether you perform steady state cardio or HIIT, what’s more important is the amount of time spent doing it. The AHA recommends completing 150 minutes of moderate intensity cardio, or 75 minutes of HIIT, weekly. Aerobic exercise has been shown to decrease stress, as well. Stress raises cortisol levels which can make you hold on to belly fat. You MUST perform cardiovascular exercises to maintain heart health and slim your waist!
In a 2012 study in the journal Obesity, subjects who increased their soluble fiber intake by 10 grams a day—the equivalent of two small apples, one cup of green peas, and one half-cup of pinto beans—reduced visceral fat by 3.7 percent after five years. Even more, participants who also engaged in moderate physical activity (exercising vigorously two to four times a week) experienced a 7.4 decrease in visceral fat over the same period of time.

Michelle Vicari’s weight loss journey began the day she made the decision to do gastric bypass surgery. Michelle struggled with obesity her entire life—and with BMI of 54, several health issues, severe GERD, and obstructive sleep apnea, the surgery saved her life. Not only is she down 158 pounds, but she no longer needs any of the 8 medications she was on prior to surgery and only needs to visit the doctor on her annual checkups. On her blog, you can find recipes and menus for post-surgery lifestyle, health tips, product reviews, and ramblings about her life post weight loss surgery.

More importantly, though, strength training does wonders for your body. It helps make bones denser, critical because our bones become weaker as we age, increasing the risk of osteoporosis — of the 10 million Americans suffering from the disease, 80 percent are women. (4) Strength training helps build lean muscle tissue, helping you lose more weight all over, including the dreaded belly fat. It also reduces your risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. (5)


Some of the most well known marine veggies are nori, wakame, kombu, hijiki and arame. With Omega 3 fatty acids, sea veggies are perfect for combating inflammation. This is a potent means of fighting inflammation so that the body can prevent inflammation and flatten the belly. So remember to buy these fresh and organic rather than processed and filled with sodium.
“Most people who have been lean their whole lives have a much better understanding of proper portion size than people who are overweight,” says Deborah Riebe, Ph.D., a professor in the department of kinesiology at the University of Rhode Island. “If they go out to eat, they’re much more likely to ask for a doggie bag right away or to leave food on their plate rather than cleaning it up.”
Strength-training exercises like pushups, situps, pullups and weightlifting burn fat and tone muscle simultaneously. The CDC recommends completing at least two muscle-strengthening sessions per week. You should do one to three sets of eight to 12 repetitions for each exercise. Additionally, chores like digging and hoeing in the garden or yard qualify as strength-training exercises.
We already mentioned above that this diet is perfect for women over 40 and it is a very good choice for women of all ages. It is not very difficult to follow as it does not restrict any food groups from your daily meals. All it takes it to be selective on what you eat and in what quantities. You do not need any special preparations on food other than remembering to minimize the consumption of red meat, fats, sugars and salt.

In terms of exercise, I kept working hard. Exercising was one of my priorities and so I fit it into my schedule every day, usually on my lunch break. I exercised 6 days of week, and the bulk of my exercise was focused on running with the occasional lifting or circuit (my amazing sister, Lindsay, a certified personal trainer, created lifting plans for me). It was important to me at this point in my journey to have a cardio-based plan and running seemed the most practical. I started running over the summer (it was a SLOW journey of gradually increasing the time and speed on the treadmill every day) so by the time it came around to fall I could actually go run on the roads and continue to improve my endurance. (Note: I am planning on writing a whole post about my relationship with running because it has grown into such an important part of my life. Running used to be extremely hard and I hated it but stuck with it because I knew it would be good for me, but now I love it and the way it makes me feel). 


Play a sport. Joining a recreational or competitive league, or merely playing with friends, can make a huge difference in burning calories. We're more motivated to participate in sports for social and competitive reasons. This means we're much more likely to play for the entire game and burn more calories than we are to give up when the workout becomes hard.
Fiber expands in your stomach and also takes time to digest, both of which help keep you feeling full for longer. Good sources include whole grains, veggies, and whole fruit (not juiced). Healthy fats like olive and nut oils—in moderation—improve flavor, give you energy, and help your body use certain nutrients. Alexandra Shipper added healthy fats, such as avocado, to protein sources like eggs and fish on her way to dropping 55 pounds.
If all of you have pear-shaped bodies, it’s something that’s determined by genetics – not by how hard you work. If that’s the case, don’t worry, obsess, or stress about it – there’s not a whole lot you can do to change it. But that’s ok – by following the advice on this list, you’ll get your body into the best shape possible – and look pretty damn good while you’re doing it.
You say tomato, I say 9-oxo-ODA. That’s the name of a compound found in the brilliant red fruits that Japanese researchers recently discovered can effectively activate your DNA to burn more fat. Tomatoes are also brimming in beta-carotene and lycopene, two potent antioxidants that mop up harmful compounds that promote fat storage. One Journal of Nutrition study found people whose diets contained the most beta-carotene and lycopene had the smallest waists and the least belly fat. And at only 5 calories apiece, grab a few sun-dried tomatoes! Cooked tomatoes contain more bioavailable lycopene than raw tomatoes, according to Cornell University researchers.
There are a couple of things I tried my best to remember each day. One of the biggest things was portion control. Portion control makes such a difference! What I mean is having one serving of something instead of two or three. It means that when I went out to dinner, I would eat half of my giant plate and take the other half home for lunch the next day. I think I always thought my body needed more food than it actually did. I used to eat something as soon as I started feeling hungry, but it's actually totally normal for our stomachs to feel hungry sometimes. That isn't to stay you should starve yourself by any means, but let yourself get hungry before you go in for a big meal. I remember packing multiple snacks (granola bars, pretzels, candy, etc.) for the 3 hour drive from Kirksville to St. Louis, which just wasn't necessary at all - I now pack one snack like some fruit or granola.  
You might think passing on lunch will save calories and trim your middle, but you're actually trending toward the opposite. Going long periods of time without eating can send your body into starvation mode, meaning it starts storing everything you've already eaten as fat since it doesn't know when you're going to feed it again. And guess where that chub piles on first? Yup. Your midsection. Experts say having a small meal or snack every three hours will keep your body fueled and in prime calorie-torching mode all day.
I found your blog through one of your SparkPeople comments. For the past few weeks, I’ve been limiting my caloric intake and eating about 900 calories a day, like you had done in the past. I’m also really limiting my carbs and exercising for an hour a day. But then I read your bio and I see that you eat wonderful things like pancakes for breakfast, so now I’m inspired to allow myself to eat good foods! You have a great story and delicious looking recipes, thanks for sharing!
Do not try to lose weight too rapidly. Crash diets and diet pills that promise weight loss are usually bad for you and actually don't help keep the weight off in the long run. Resist the urge to take the "easy" way out and instead stick with a healthier lifestyle. This way you lose the weight and improve your health, helping you keep the weight off in a way that won't harm you in the long run.
"Only doing abdominal-focused workouts, like crunches, won’t help you banish the bulge. Belly fat is simply where your body stores energy, so you need to take a whole-body approach to tackle it. HIIT training (high intensity interval training) is a great way to burn fat and get your heart rate up. Squats, burpees and treadmill sprints are all examples to try."
Currently there’s no evidence that consuming coconut oil can lower the risk of heart disease. And while there is some research suggesting MCTs are more satiating and may promote more fat loss compared to long chain fatty acids, more research is needed to provide any conclusive evidence that coconut oil is beneficial to weight loss (59,60,61). In reality, it is not one single food that will make or break your diet, and any food, including coconut oil can be included in a healthy weight loss diet when calories are controlled and good nutrition is emphasized overall. 
About: Evette’s blog is all about getting personal. She’s deeply expressive in her writing and truly moves readers with her words while she maintains accountability on her weight loss journey. Evette started the blog as a way to share her path of discovery and redefining moments while she works to raise her young daughter into a beautiful, kind woman. And she takes readers along with her as she continues to blog about her goals, attainments, fears and much, much more — all in a personal and engaging manner.
Justine McCabe’s weight loss transformation story began in early 2015 after her husband unexpectedly and tragically committed suicide. Weighing 313 pounds at the time, his death shook her awake and made her realize she had to make a lot of changes. By taking control of her health, she chose to live. Justine documented her weight loss transformation in 365 days of selfies and continues to share her journey on her blog where she has lost 126 pounds, and counting!
Many people have no clue how many calories they are eating. According to one study in the New England Journal of Medicine, two groups of individuals (one with a history of diet resistance and one without) that were similar in weight, BMI, body fat percentage, level of education and history of employment were asked to report how many calories they thought they had consumed in a day. Both groups underreported their calorie intake by roughly 1,000 calories or MORE!
Vegetables are the gold standard of healthy food choices when it comes to dieting because they are the most nutrient dense food group on the planet. Choosing more nutrient dense foods can help you get more quality nutrition into your diet for less calories. And vegetables give you the most bang per bite, which can make cutting calories a breeze and your overall diet more beneficial. Research suggests that eating more veggies can help control appetite, improve mood, and even give you a natural sexy glow (48,49)!
As an exercise physiologist, life coach, personal trainer and group fitness instructor for many years I have promoted these ideas and they work. Not only does this approach effectively result in a sustainable weight loss, it promotes good health in general. At age 73 I have had bypass surgery and lived many years with advanced prostate cancer. Walking the walk has kept me fit and healthy regardless of my diseases. I test in the excellent percentile in ACSM fitness tests for my age, actually in the good percentile for 50 year old men. Remember that the three pillars of good health are: routine exercise, healthy diet and positive attitude.
So, we’ve scoured the internet, researched hundreds of blogs, and of all the incredible women we came across, these 35 inspirational blogs stood out the most. Not just because they’ve been through a weight loss transformation of their own, but because they have completely changed the way they see themselves throughout the process, the impact they have on their audience, and the fact that they are truly badass women who have a purpose, a message, and the vulnerability to lay it out on the line, in hopes that their journey will help just one person on theirs.
If you have been weight stable for a period of time and you feel energetic and strong, maybe it’s time to revise your goals or at least your timeline. For now, focus on the rediscovered metabolically healthy you, feeling well and functioning well. You’ll be amazed at what can happen when you stop letting weight, especially a specific weight, be the marker of your success.

You don’t have to be the next Usain Bolt in the making to enjoy some serious belly-slimming results from hitting the track from time to time. Even a moderate-rate jog a few times a week can blast through that belly fat; in fact, a study conducted at Duke University Medical Center found that, over the course of an eight-month study, overweight adult study subjects who jogged 12 miles a week lost the most belly fat and burned 67 percent more calories than participants who did an equivalent amount of resistance exercise, or a combination of cardio and resistance work.


Everyone is different. How quickly you burn calories when you are not physically active can be very different from other people based on your specific genes, biology, and past. While scientists know that there are 3,500 calories in one pound, simply eating 500 fewer calories every day for a week (or 3,500 fewer calories in a week) does not always end in losing exactly one pound.

Some of us no longer have the strong joints we had as teenagers. Jogging is out of the question and walking doesn’t cut it. The good news is elliptical trainers provide an intense, low impact cardio workout. In fact, a 145-lb. person can burn about 300 calories in 30 minutes on an elliptical trainer. That’s about as many calories as running burns, but without the joint wear-and-tear.
Your body needs energy to survive, but you also need good nutrition to live well, and longer. The overall balance and nutrition of your diet, can affect the type of weight you lose, gain or maintain. If your macro balance (amount of carbohydrates, protein and fat) is out of whack, you could be storing more fat or losing muscle mass, which can hinder your overall efforts.
In a 2012 study in the journal Obesity, subjects who increased their soluble fiber intake by 10 grams a day—the equivalent of two small apples, one cup of green peas, and one half-cup of pinto beans—reduced visceral fat by 3.7 percent after five years. Even more, participants who also engaged in moderate physical activity (exercising vigorously two to four times a week) experienced a 7.4 decrease in visceral fat over the same period of time.
Such an inspirational story, Jennifer! The ones in the comments section too. I see that there are so many people are still struggling in dealing with weight management. So I have something for you guys. It’s red tea. Red tea reduces stress, aids in weight management because it burns fat passively, cleanses the body, and control cravings so you’ll get rid of the unnecessary calories. If you’re interested, I recommend this one: https://bit.ly/2I1DF0N 🙂

I dont mean any disrespect and this article is tremendous, but, I dont understand why you suggest that you will do your best to answer questions, etc. but no one does? I do realize it would be a lot of work to do so but isnt that the whole point here? I could really use a response and I imagine most other questions here are of time sensitivity. Either way, thank you for the great info!
Hydrate while cutting out excessive sweets from your liquid diet. Stick with water. Water is healthy, plentiful, cheap, and actually tastes good. Water flushes out harmful toxins, carries nutrients to cells, and provides a moist environment for bodily tissues that need it. Doctors recommend drinking 64 ounces of fluid per day, or about 1.9 liters (0.5 US gal).[3]
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