The normal development of the prostate gland is dependent on the action of testosterone via the androgen receptor, and abnormal biosynthesis of the hormone or inactivating mutations of the androgen receptor are associated with a rudimentary prostate gland. Testosterone also requires conversion to dihydrotestosterone in the prostate gland for full activity. In view of this link between testosterone and prostate development, it is important to consider the impact that testosterone replacement may have on the prevalence and morbidity associated with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and prostate cancer, which are the common conditions related to pathological growth of the prostate gland.
Testosterone boosters are supplementary substances that can be used for the purpose of increasing testosterone levels in the blood. This study aimed to evaluate the side effects and health risks of testosterone boosters among athletes. A sportsman came to the King Saud Hospital, Unaizah, Qassim, Saudi Arabia, suffering from abdominal pain. The attending doctor requested general laboratory tests. He admitted to having consumed two courses of a testosterone booster over a period of 42 days following the instructions of the manufacturer. In total, the athlete in question consumed several courses, twice before the abdominal pain started and twice after it subsided. The blood tests and reports suggested that the commercial product consumed might negatively affect several hepatic functions and resulted in slightly increased testosterone concentrations after the fourth course. In conclusion, administration of testosterone booster products, although obtained from trusted sources, may still present some health risks. Further studies with large sample size and for a long period need to be done to confirm the current findings.
If you do take DAA I recommend cycling it (i.e. 5 days on, 2 off, over 4 weeks then 4 weeks off). And taking it with an aromatase inhibitor (which ensures the aspartic acid doesn’t get converted to estrogen). Especially as more studies are coming out showing the increase in testosterone is limited to a week or two before it drops back to normal levels.
VI-PEX or Vasodilator Ingredients with Penile Expansion is a highly-potent combination of blood flow-boosting ingredients which prolong and intensify the vasodilation properties of Male UltraCore, resulting in an undeniable improvement in size and hardness during penile erection. VI-PEX technology works hand-in-hand with STEM technology to leverage sexual arousal as a size-boosting factor during penile erection.
More can be learned from a large, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of finasteride treatment in 18,800 men aged 55 or more. Finasteride is a 5α-reductase inhibitor which acts to prevent the metabolism of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) – the most active androgen in the prostate. The trial showed a greater overall incidence of prostate cancer in the control group, but men treated with finasteride were more likely to have high grade tumors (Thompson et al 2003), suggesting that reduced androgen exposure of the prostate may delay the presentation of prostate cancer and/or promote advanced disease in some other way.
There are no studies showing its effects on healthy males, but it has been shown to drastically improve testosterone in infertile males (ref 77). It's also packed full of minerals, so is a great superfood nevertheless. I use the Sunfoods brand. Make sure you buy from a quality brand, as there are a lot of poor shilajit products out there, also some have been shown to be high in heavy metals. 
Testosterone has several positive effects on sexual function, but its most significant effect is on libido, sexual interest and arousal. Boys going through puberty develop an enhanced interest in sex (thoughts, fantasies, masturbation, intercourse) as a consequence of rising levels of testosterone. Hypogonadal men usually have a significant improvement in libido when TRT is initiated (Wang et al 2000; Morley and Perry 2003).
Cross-sectional studies have found a positive association between serum testosterone and some measures of cognitive ability in men (Barrett-Connor, Goodman-Gruen et al 1999; Yaffe et al 2002). Longitudinal studies have found that free testosterone levels correlate positively with future cognitive abilities and reduced rate of cognitive decline (Moffat et al 2002) and that, compared with controls, testosterone levels are reduced in men with Alzheimer’s disease at least 10 years prior to diagnosis (Moffat et al 2004). Studies of the effects of induced androgen deficiency in patients with prostate cancer have shown that profoundly lowering testosterone leads to worsening cognitive functions (Almeida et al 2004; Salminen et al 2004) and increased levels of serum amyloid (Gandy et al 2001; Almeida et al 2004), which is central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (Parihar and Hemnani 2004). Furthermore, testosterone reduces amyloid-induced hippocampal neurotoxity in vitro (Pike 2001) as well as exhibiting other neuroprotective effects (Pouliot et al 1996). The epidemiological and experimental data propose a potential role of testosterone in protecting cognitive function and preventing Alzheimer’s disease.

The Organon group in the Netherlands were the first to isolate the hormone, identified in a May 1935 paper "On Crystalline Male Hormone from Testicles (Testosterone)".[180] They named the hormone testosterone, from the stems of testicle and sterol, and the suffix of ketone. The structure was worked out by Schering's Adolf Butenandt, at the Chemisches Institut of Technical University in Gdańsk.[181][182]

Infertility in men and women Infertility or a couple being unable to conceive a child can cause significant stress and unhappiness. There are numerous reasons for both male and female infertility but many ways in which medical assistance can overcome problems that people may face. Everything concerning infertility is discussed and explained here. Read now
This product is to be taken once daily on an empty stomach. Is there a particular time frame when food can be eaten? If I were to take this in the morning right when I wake up and then eat breakfast an hour later, is that fine? Also, mostly the only time of day my stomach is usually empty is right before going to bed. If it is taken at this time, will this affect sleep at all?
The diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism requires the combination of low serum testosterone levels with symptoms of hypogonadism. Questionnaires are available which check for the symptoms of hypogonadism. These have been validated for the assessment of aging patients with hypogonadism (Morley et al 2000; Moore et al 2004) but have a low specificity. In view of the overlap in symptoms between hypogonadism, aging and other medical conditions it is wise to use a formal method of symptom assessment which can be used to monitor the effects of testosterone replacement.
The testicles produce an enzyme called 11ßHSD-1 which protects your testosterone molecules from the effects cortisol.  During times of prolonged stress and chronically elevated cortisol, there simply is too much cortisol for 11ßHSD-1 to handle.  This results in testosterone molecules being destroyed inside the gonads before they even enter the bloodstream (8, 9).
Steven Doerr, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Doerr received his undergraduate degree in Spanish from the University of Colorado at Boulder. He graduated with his Medical Degree from the University Of Colorado Health Sciences Center in Denver, Colorado in 1998 and completed his residency training in Emergency Medicine from Denver Health Medical Center in Denver, Colorado in 2002, where he also served as Chief Resident.
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Testosterone is included in the World Health Organization's list of essential medicines, which are the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[107] It is available as a generic medication.[10] The price depends on the form of testosterone used.[108] It can be administered as a cream or transdermal patch that is applied to the skin, by injection into a muscle, as a tablet that is placed in the cheek, or by ingestion.[10]
There is also solid research indicating that if you take astaxanthin in combination with saw palmetto, you may experience significant synergistic benefits. A 2009 study published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition found that an optimal dose of saw palmetto and astaxanthin decreased both DHT and estrogen while simultaneously increasing testosterone.6 Also, in order to block the synthesis of excess estrogen (estradiol) from testosterone there are excellent foods and plant extracts that may help to block the enzyme known as aromatase which is responsible producing estrogen. Some of these include white button mushrooms, grape seed extract and nettles.7

A: Depo-Testosterone is a brand name medication that contains testosterone cypionate. Depo-Testosterone is given as an intramuscular injection. The medication is indicated for replacement therapy for men that have conditions associated with symptoms of deficiency in the hormone or absence of testosterone produced in the body. Conditions that can be associated with low testosterone include: delayed puberty, impotence and hormonal imbalances. Testosterone is a sex hormone that is naturally produced in the male testicles. In women, small amounts of testosterone is produced in the ovaries and by the adrenal system. Testosterone is available in various medications for testosterone replacement therapy. Different forms of testosterone (e.g. cypionate, enanthate etc) are contained in different brand name medications. Jen Marsico, RPh


Common side effects from testosterone medication include acne, swelling, and breast enlargement in males.[10] Serious side effects may include liver toxicity, heart disease, and behavioral changes.[10] Women and children who are exposed may develop virilization.[10] It is recommended that individuals with prostate cancer not use the medication.[10] It can cause harm if used during pregnancy or breastfeeding.[10]
During the month before my experiment, I was definitely sleep deprived. Some nights I was only getting 4 to 5 hours. Testosterone killer! During my experiment I tried to get 8 to 9 hours of sleep at night as consistently as possible. I had to go to bed earlier, but I was only cutting into time that I would have been using to mindlessly surf the net anyway.
For example, the study published in Obesity Research tells that the scientists measured testosterone levels in two groups of middle-aged men with obesity. One group underwent a 16-week weight loss program, while the second group did nothing. Each participant of the first group lost 20 kg on the average. And these participants experienced a significant increase in testosterone levels. So, the fight against overweight is very important for those who want to overcome testosterone deficiency. But starvation is strictly forbidden because this is a stressful situation which leads to the sharp decline in T levels.
"The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism" published that males who switched from a high-fat diet to a low-fat diet also saw a decrease in their testosterone levels. If you want to put some fat back into your diet without fearing cardiac implications, plant-based saturated fat like coconut is just the ticket. Meat-based fat is also acceptable if kept to less than 10% of your dietary fat intake.
Testosterone belongs to a class of male hormones called androgens, which are sometimes called steroids or anabolic steroids. In men, testosterone is produced mainly in the testes, with a small amount made in the adrenal glands. The brain's hypothalamus and pituitary gland control testosterone production. The hypothalamus instructs the pituitary gland on how much testosterone to produce, and the pituitary gland passes the message on to the testes. These communications happen through chemicals and hormones in the bloodstream.
The unsexy truth is that increasing T naturally simply comes down to making some long-term changes in your diet and lifestyle. As you’ll see, what I did to increase T largely boils down to eating better, exercising smarter, and getting more sleep. That’s pretty much it. But as with most things in life, the devil is in the details, so I’ll share with you exactly what I did and provide research that explains why the things I did helped boost my testosterone.
Ten healthy men aged around 24 years old spent 1 week sleeping for 8 hours per night at home, they then spent the next 11 nights in a lab. They slept for 10 hours per night for 3 nights, followed by 8 nights of restricted sleep, when they slept for only 5 hours. Doctors checked their blood every 15 to 30 minutes during the last night that they slept 10 hours, as well as on the sleep-restricted session.
At the present time, it is suggested that androgen replacement should take the form of natural testosterone. Some of the effects of testosterone are mediated after conversion to estrogen or dihydrotestosterone by the enzymes aromatase and 5a-reductase enzymes respectively. Other effects occur independently of the traditional action of testosterone via the classical androgen receptor- for example, its action as a vasodilator via a cell membrane action as described previously. It is therefore important that the androgen used to treat hypogonadism is amenable to the action of these metabolizing enzymes and can also mediate the non-androgen receptor actions of testosterone. Use of natural testosterone ensures this and reduces the chance of non-testosterone mediated adverse effects. There are now a number of testosterone preparations which can meet these recommendations and the main factor in deciding between them is patient choice.
The rise in testosterone levels during competition predicted aggression in males but not in females.[86] Subjects who interacted with hand guns and an experimental game showed rise in testosterone and aggression.[87] Natural selection might have evolved males to be more sensitive to competitive and status challenge situations and that the interacting roles of testosterone are the essential ingredient for aggressive behaviour in these situations.[88] Testosterone produces aggression by activating subcortical areas in the brain, which may also be inhibited or suppressed by social norms or familial situations while still manifesting in diverse intensities and ways through thoughts, anger, verbal aggression, competition, dominance and physical violence.[89] Testosterone mediates attraction to cruel and violent cues in men by promoting extended viewing of violent stimuli.[90] Testosterone specific structural brain characteristic can predict aggressive behaviour in individuals.[91]

During the second trimester, androgen level is associated with sex formation.[13] This period affects the femininization or masculinization of the fetus and can be a better predictor of feminine or masculine behaviours such as sex typed behaviour than an adult's own levels. A mother's testosterone level during pregnancy is correlated with her daughter's sex-typical behavior as an adult, and the correlation is even stronger than with the daughter's own adult testosterone level.[14]


This causes your body to burn fat for the next 36 hours to replace your body’s vital energy stores. It addition to increasing your T-levels, it can help burn between 3–9 times more fat, lower your resting heart rate, lower blood pressure, keep your brain young by increasing circulation, and aids in detoxification by stimulating the lymphatic system.
Pellets. Your doctor will place the testosterone pellets under the skin of your upper hip or buttocks. Your doctor will give a shot of local anesthesia to numb your skin, then make a small cut and place the pellets inside the fatty tissues underneath your skin. This medication dissolves slowly and is released over about 3-6 months, depending on the number of pellets. 
Most Americans today are sleep deprived, which may be a contributing factor to declining testosterone levels in men. See, our body makes nearly all the testosterone it needs for the day while we’re sleeping. That increased level of T that we experience at night is one of the reasons we wake up with “Morning Wood.” (If you don’t have Morning Wood on a consistent basis, you might have low T).

An added testosterone benefit of my high fat and balanced protein and carb diet was that it probably helped me lose some body fat (I went from 18% to 12% body fat). Studies show that high fat diets actually contribute to increased body fat loss. And as we discussed earlier, as you lose body fat, your T production ramps up. Virtuous cycle for the win!

In males, the testosterone test can help find the reason for sexual problems, like reduced sex drive or erectile dysfunction. If you’re having a hard time getting your partner pregnant, the test can tell if your blood testosterone level is low. It can also screen for problems with the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. This controls how much testosterone your body makes.
Phthalates are found to cause poor testosterone synthesis by disrupting an enzyme required to create the male hormone. Women with high levels of DEHP and DBP (two types of phthalates) in their system during pregnancy were found to have sons that had feminine characteristics Phthalates are found in vinyl flooring, detergents, automotive plastics, soaps and shampoos, deodorants, perfumes, hair sprays, plastic bags and food packaging, among a long list of common products. Aside from phthalates, other chemicals that possess gender-bending traits are:
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As we age, the body undergoes multiple degenerative changes at multiple sites and in multiple systems. The changes of aging are inevitable and inexorable and represent the march toward ultimate death. We are mortal beings whose destiny it is to die. As we come to learn about the processes of life we can better prepare ourselves for the finality of death and on the way perhaps retard the degenerative process, or repair it (for however long we may enjoy this repair), or substitute chemical compounds that our bodies once produced in abundance, an abundance which fades with the advance of age.
Meat. Meat, particularly beef, provides our bodies with the protein it needs to create muscle (more muscle = more T) and the fats and cholesterol to make testosterone. My meat topping of choice was sliced up chuck steak. I grilled two of them on Monday and it lasted me until the next Monday. Every now and then I’d slow-cook some ribs or brisket to use as my meat topping. My philosophy was the fattier, the better.

Important future developments will include selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). These drugs will be able to produce isolated effects of testosterone at androgen receptors. They are likely to become useful clinical drugs, but their initial worth may lie in facilitating research into the relative importance of testosterone’s action at the androgen receptor compared to at other sites or after conversion to other hormones. Testosterone will remain the treatment of choice for late onset hypogonadism for some time to come.

Like other supplements and medication, testosterone therapy comes with risks and possible side effects. This is particularly true if you try to take it for normal aging rather than for treatment of a condition. Also, the Cleveland Clinic points out that the effects that these supplements may have on your heart and prostate can lead to a number of potential issues. Complications include:

Trials of testosterone treatment in men with type 2 diabetes have also taken place. A recent randomized controlled crossover trial assessed the effects of intramuscular testosterone replacement to achieve levels within the physiological range, compared with placebo injections in 24 men with diabetes, hypogonadism and a mean age of 64 years (Kapoor et al 2006). Ten of these men were insulin treated. Testosterone treatment led to a significant reduction in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and fasting glucose compared to placebo. Testosterone also produced a significant reduction in insulin resistance, measured by the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), in the fourteen non-insulin treated patients. It is not possible to measure insulin resistance in patients treated with insulin but five out of ten of these patients had a reduction of insulin dose during the study. Other significant changes during testosterone treatment in this trial were reduced total cholesterol, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio. Similarly, a placebo-controlled but non-blinded trial in 24 men with visceral obesity, diabetes, hypogonadism and mean age 57 years found that three months of oral testosterone treatment led to significant reductions in HbA1C, fasting glucose, post-prandial glucose, weight, fat mass and waist-hip ratio (Boyanov et al 2003). In contrast, an uncontrolled study of 150 mg intramuscular testosterone given to 10 patients, average age 64 years, with diabetes and hypogonadism found no significant change in diabetes control, fasting glucose or insulin levels (Corrales et al 2004). Another uncontrolled study showed no beneficial effect of testosterone treatment on insulin resistance, measured by HOMA and ‘minimal model’ of area under acute insulin response curves, in 11 patients with type 2 diabetes aged between 33 and 73 years (Lee et al 2005). Body mass index was within the normal range in this population and there was no change in waist-hip ratio or weight during testosterone treatment. Baseline testosterone levels were in the low-normal range and patients received a relatively small dose of 100 mg intramuscular testosterone every three weeks. A good increase in testosterone levels during the trial is described but it is not stated at which time during the three week cycle the testosterone levels were tested, so the lack of response could reflect an insufficient overall testosterone dose in the trial period.


If you are serious about losing weight, you have got to strictly limit the amount of processed sugar in your diet, as evidence is mounting that excess sugar, and fructose in particular, is the primary driving factor in the obesity epidemic. So cutting soda from your diet is essential, as is limiting fructose found in processed foods, fruit juice, excessive fruit and so-called "healthy" sweeteners like agave.

Male hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome caused by a lack of androgens or their action. Causes of hypogonadism may reflect abnormalities of the hypothalamus, pituitary, testes or target tissues. Increases in the amount of testosterone converted to estrogen under the action of the enzyme aromatase may also contribute to hypogonadism. Most aspects of the clinical syndrome are unrelated to the location of the cause. A greater factor in the production of a clinical syndrome is the age of onset. The development of hypogonadism with aging is known as late-onset hypogonadism and is characterised by loss of vitality, fatigue, loss of libido, erectile dysfunction, somnolence, depression and poor concentration. Hypogonadal ageing men also gain fat mass and lose bone mass, muscle mass and strength.


Do low levels of testosterone produce symptoms in middle-aged men? Absolutely. In fact, the classic symptoms were first recognized more than 70 years ago when two American physicians, Carl Heller, MD, and Gordon Myers, MD, showed the effectiveness of testosterone treatment for symptoms of fatigue, depression, irritability, low sex drive, erectile dysfunction, night sweats, and hot flashes in men. Over the years, subsequent studies have found that some—but not all—men with low, age-adjusted testosterone levels exhibit symptoms consistent with andropause. All experience improvement with testosterone therapy.
For men with low blood testosterone levels, the benefits of hormone replacement therapy usually outweigh potential risks. However, for most other men it's a shared decision with your doctor. It offers men who feel lousy a chance to feel better, but that quick fix could distract attention from unknown long-term hazards. "I can't tell you for certain that this raises your personal risk of heart problems and prostate cancer, or that it doesn't," Dr. Pallais says.
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